Category Wireless Communications Blog

motorola slr8000 repeater

Reliability and Maintainability for Two-Way-Radio Repeaters

Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) considerations are critical when designing a reliable two-way radio repeater installation. Here are the key reasons why these considerations are important:

1. System Uptime and Availability

Importance:

  • Continuous Communication: Two-way radio repeaters are often used in critical communication systems, such as emergency services, military, and public safety. High uptime ensures that communication lines are always open.
  • Operational Efficiency: For businesses, reliable communication can enhance coordination and efficiency, reducing downtime and improving productivity.

Considerations:

  • Redundancy: Implementing redundant systems (e.g., backup power supplies, spare repeaters) to ensure continuous operation in case of failure.
  • Quality Components: Using high-quality, durable components that are less likely to fail.

2. Maintenance and Repair

Importance:

  • Cost-Efficiency: Regular maintenance and easy repairs minimize long-term costs and reduce the likelihood of expensive emergency fixes.
  • Minimized Downtime: Efficient maintainability ensures that any necessary repairs can be done quickly, minimizing system downtime.

Considerations:

  • Accessibility: Designing installations with easy access to components for repair and maintenance work.
  • Modular Design: Using modular components that can be easily replaced or upgraded without significant disruption to the system.

3. Environmental Factors

Importance:

  • Durability: Installations must withstand environmental conditions (e.g., temperature extremes, humidity, dust) to ensure long-term reliability.
  • Longevity: Reducing the need for frequent replacements and ensuring that the system remains operational over its expected lifespan.

Considerations:

  • Environmental Protection: Housing repeaters in weatherproof enclosures and using components rated for the expected environmental conditions.
  • Location Selection: Choosing installation sites that minimize exposure to harsh conditions while ensuring optimal performance.

4. Performance and Quality Assurance

Importance:

  • Consistency: Ensuring the repeater consistently meets performance standards over time.
  • User Trust: Building and maintaining trust among users by providing reliable and consistent communication quality.

Considerations:

  • Regular Testing: Implementing regular performance testing and quality assurance checks to identify and address potential issues before they lead to failures.
  • Monitoring Systems: Using monitoring and diagnostic tools to continuously assess the performance of the repeater and preemptively address potential issues.

5. Technical Support and Training

Importance:

  • Knowledgeable Maintenance: Ensuring that personnel are well-trained to perform maintenance and repairs, reducing the risk of errors and prolonged downtime.
  • Rapid Response: Having access to technical support can speed up the resolution of any issues that arise.

Considerations:

  • Training Programs: Implementing comprehensive training programs for maintenance staff.
  • Support Agreements: Establishing support agreements with manufacturers or third-party providers for rapid response in case of technical issues.

Conclusion

Considering R&M factors in the design and implementation of a two-way radio repeater installation ensures that the system remains reliable and efficient over its operational lifespan. This not only guarantees continuous communication, especially in critical applications, but also optimises costs associated with maintenance and repairs, enhances system performance, and builds user trust through consistent, reliability and dependable service.

data cabling installation data cable

Data Cable Installation

Data cable installation is a crucial aspect of setting up a robust and efficient telecommunications network infrastructure for business and Industrial use.

Correctly installed data cabling ensures reliable communication, faster data transfer rates, and the flexibility to expand or reconfigure the network as needed.

Here are the key steps and considerations involved in successful data cabling installation:

Steps in Data Cabling Installation

  1. Planning and Design Considerations:
    • Assess Requirements: Determine the type and number of devices that will be connected, the data speed requirements, and future scalability needs.
    • Site Survey: Conduct a thorough site survey to understand the building layout, identify potential obstacles, and plan cable routes.
    • Network Design: Create a detailed network design plan, including the locations of data outlets, cable pathways, and network equipment.
  2. Selecting the Right Cable:
    • Cable Types: Choose the appropriate type of cable for the data speeds, bandwidth and operating environments (e.g., Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, or fiber optic) based on bandwidth requirements and distance limitations.
    • Quality Standards: Ensure cables meet industry standards (e.g., TIA/EIA, ISO/IEC) for performance and reliability.
  3. Installation Preparation:
    • Obtain Permits: Secure any necessary permits or approvals for the installation work.
    • Acquire Materials: Purchase the required cables, connectors, patch panels, racks, and other hardware.
  4. Running the Cables:
    • Pathways and Conduits: Use appropriate pathways, conduits, and cable trays to run cables neatly and protect them from damage.
    • Labeling: Label cables at both ends to facilitate easy identification and troubleshooting.
  5. Terminating and Connecting:
    • Terminations: Properly terminate cables using compatible connectors and ensure secure connections to patch panels, keystone jacks, and other interfaces.
    • Patch Panels: Organize and connect cables to patch panels for easy management and future changes.
  6. Testing and Certification:
    • Cable Testing: Use cable testers to check for continuity, signal integrity, and compliance with standards.
    • Documentation: Document the entire cabling layout, including cable routes, termination points, and test results.
  7. Network Configuration:
    • Equipment Setup: Install and configure network switches, routers, and other equipment.
    • System Integration: Ensure all devices are properly connected and integrated into the network.
  8. Maintenance and Upgrades:
    • Regular Inspections: Perform regular inspections and maintenance to ensure the cabling infrastructure remains in good condition.
    • Upgrades: Plan for future upgrades to accommodate new technologies and increased data demands.

Considerations for Data Cabling Installation

  • Compliance: Ensure the installation complies with local building codes, safety regulations, and industry standards.
  • Scalability: Design the cabling infrastructure with future expansion in mind, allowing for additional devices and higher data rates.
  • Redundancy: Consider implementing redundant pathways and connections to enhance network reliability and minimize downtime.
  • Environmental Factors: Account for environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and electromagnetic interference that could affect cable performance.
  • Aesthetics: Maintain a clean and organized cabling setup, especially in visible areas, to ensure a professional appearance.

Benefits of Professional Installation

  • Expertise: Professional installers have the knowledge and experience to design and implement an efficient and reliable network infrastructure.
  • Quality Assurance: Professionals use high-quality materials and adhere to best practices, ensuring optimal performance and longevity of the cabling system.
  • Troubleshooting: Professional installation includes thorough testing and documentation, making it easier to troubleshoot and resolve issues in the future.

By following these steps and considerations, businesses can ensure a robust data cabling infrastructure that supports their communication and data transfer needs, both now and in the future.

For help with Data Cable Installation, contact us.

Hytera HP5

What is ROIP ?

ROIP stands for Radio over Internet Protocol. It is a technology that allows radio communication to be transmitted over an IP network, such as the internet or a private IP network. This technology is similar to Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), which is used for transmitting voice communications over IP networks.

Key aspects of ROIP include:

  1. Interoperability: ROIP allows different radio systems to communicate with each other over IP networks, providing interoperability between various radio frequencies and types.
  2. Remote Access: Users can access radio networks from remote locations using internet-connected devices, enhancing the flexibility and reach of radio communications.
  3. Cost Efficiency: By utilizing existing IP networks, ROIP can reduce the need for dedicated radio infrastructure, leading to cost savings.
  4. Scalability: ROIP systems can be easily scaled to accommodate more users or expanded geographic coverage by leveraging IP networks.
  5. Integration with Other Systems: ROIP can be integrated with other communication systems, such as telephone networks, enabling seamless communication across different platforms.

ROIP is used in various fields, including public safety, military, transportation, and other industries where reliable and flexible radio communication is essential.

Benefits and use case examples, for business.

ROIP (Radio over Internet Protocol) offers efficeincy benefits for business users across various industries.

Here are some examples:

  1. Logistics and Transportation:
    • Fleet Management: ROIP enables communication between drivers and dispatch centers, improving coordination and efficiency.
    • Supply Chain: Real-time communication helps in managing supply chain operations, ensuring timely deliveries and handling emergencies.
  2. Retail:
    • Store Operations: Store employees can communicate across departments or multiple store locations, improving customer service and operational efficiency.
    • Security: ROIP can be integrated with security systems to ensure rapid communication during security incidents.
  3. Construction:
    • Site Coordination: Workers on large construction sites can communicate seamlessly, improving project coordination and safety.
    • Remote Supervision: Project managers can monitor and communicate with multiple construction sites from a central location.
  4. Hospitality:
    • Hotel Management: Staff can communicate across various departments (housekeeping, front desk, maintenance) to ensure smooth operations and excellent guest service.
    • Event Management: Coordination between different teams during events, ensuring everything runs smoothly.
  5. Manufacturing:
    • Plant Operations: Communication between different sections of a manufacturing plant for efficient operations and quick response to issues.
    • Safety: Ensuring immediate communication during safety incidents to manage and mitigate risks.
  6. Healthcare:
    • Hospital Operations: ROIP can facilitate communication between different departments (ER, surgery, administration) to improve patient care and operational efficiency.
    • Home Healthcare: Nurses and caregivers can stay in constant communication with the main office, improving care coordination.
  7. Education:
    • Campus Security: Enhancing security by enabling instant communication between security personnel across the campus.
    • Event Coordination: Efficient management and communication during school events, ensuring smooth operations.
  8. Utilities:
    • Field Operations: Workers in the field can stay in touch with the main office, improving coordination and response times for maintenance and repairs.
    • Emergency Response: Rapid communication during outages or other emergencies to restore services quickly.
  9. Emergency Services:
    • Disaster Recovery: Businesses can use ROIP to maintain communication during disasters, ensuring business continuity and coordination of recovery efforts.
    • Coordination with Public Services: Private security or safety teams can coordinate with public emergency services during crises.
  10. Corporate Communication:
    • Multi-location Coordination: Businesses with multiple offices can use ROIP to ensure seamless communication between locations.
    • Remote Work Support: Facilitating communication for remote employees, ensuring they remain connected to the main office.

ROIP can enhance operational efficiency, safety, and coordination for business users by providing reliable and flexible communication solutions.

Whilst not all of the above examples, necessarily require ROIP to be designed into the system, it can enable connection of teams separated by long distances.

Want your Walkie-Talkie to be able to communicate with a team manager, in another factory abroad? ROIP is one solution.

Think of ROIP, as like VOIP telephone system, but with instant Push-To-Talk (PTT).

Get in touch to book a system design consultation.

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Overview of Programmable Logic Controllers

Overview of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)

What is a PLC?

A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is an industrial digital computer designed to perform control functions, primarily for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures.

Key Components of a PLC:

  1. Central Processing Unit (CPU):
    • The brain of the PLC, it executes the control instructions based on the logic programmed.
    • It handles data processing, logical operations, and arithmetic operations, and manages communication with other devices.
  2. Power Supply:
    • Provides the necessary electrical power for the PLC and its components.
  3. Input/Output (I/O) Modules:
    • Input Modules: Receive signals from sensors and devices (e.g., switches, temperature sensors).
    • Output Modules: Send signals to actuators and devices (e.g., motors, relays).
  4. Programming Device:
    • Used to enter, edit, and load control programs into the PLC. Examples include personal computers or handheld devices.

Types of PLCs:

  1. Compact PLCs:
    • All components (CPU, power supply, and I/O) are housed in a single unit.
    • Suitable for small to medium-sized applications.
  2. Modular PLCs:
    • Composed of separate modules for the CPU, power supply, and I/O that can be individually replaced or expanded.
    • Ideal for large and complex control systems.

Programming Languages:

  1. Ladder Logic:
    • Resembles electrical relay logic diagrams, easy for electricians and technicians to understand.
    • Uses symbols to represent control logic.
  2. Function Block Diagram (FBD):
    • Uses blocks to represent functions, making it suitable for complex logic operations and easy visualization.
  3. Structured Text (ST):
    • High-level text-based language similar to Pascal or C.
    • Useful for complex mathematical functions and algorithms.
  4. Sequential Function Chart (SFC):
    • Graphical language that shows control sequences step-by-step.
    • Ideal for processes that require sequential operations.
  5. Instruction List (IL):
    • Low-level language similar to assembly language.
    • Provides detailed control over operations but is harder to read and write.

Applications of PLCs:

  • Manufacturing: Automation of assembly lines, machinery control, and process monitoring.
  • Automotive: Production line control, robotic welding, and painting.
  • Food and Beverage: Packaging, bottling, and material handling systems.
  • Energy: Power plant control, renewable energy systems, and grid management.
  • Building Automation: HVAC control, lighting systems, and security systems.

Advantages of PLCs:

  1. Reliability:
    • Designed for harsh industrial environments with robust construction.
  2. Flexibility:
    • Easily reprogrammed for different tasks and applications.
  3. Scalability:
    • Modular systems can be expanded to meet growing system requirements.
  4. Ease of Maintenance:
    • Diagnostic and troubleshooting tools are often built-in.
  5. Real-time Operation:
    • Capable of processing inputs and outputs in real-time for immediate response.

Conclusion:

PLCs are integral to modern industrial automation, providing a reliable, flexible, and scalable solution for controlling complex electromechanical processes. Their ability to handle a wide range of applications across different industries makes them a cornerstone of automated systems.

Yacht Recommendation for Marine Two-Way Radio

The Motorola DP3441 is an excellent choice for marine environments, offering durability and reliability crucial for operations at sea.

Its compact design ensures convenience without compromising on performance. With a large capacity Lithium-Ion battery providing up to 10 hours of operating time, the crew can rely on continuous communication throughout their duties.

In emergencies, the addition of throat microphones with attached acoustic tubes enhances communication efficiency and ensures clarity even in noisy or chaotic situations. This feature is particularly valuable for deckhands who may need to communicate vital information quickly and effectively.

The installation of the radio system has significantly boosted onboard security and productivity. Officers and crew alike appreciate the robustness, reliability, and user-friendly nature of the compact radios, which streamline communication processes and facilitate seamless coordination.

Yesway Communication delivers ongoing support and post purchase assistance, therefore the yacht owner can rest assured that any future issues with its two-way radio equipment will be promptly addressed, ensuring peace of mind for all onboard.

What is the best handheld two way radio system for a superyacht in Europe?

Selecting the best handheld two-way radio system for a superyacht in Europe depends on several factors including range requirements, features needed, budget, and specific preferences of the crew. Here are a few top options that are commonly recommended:

  1. Motorola MOTOTRBO Series: Motorola is a trusted brand in the two-way radio industry. Their MOTOTRBO series offers a range of handheld radios suitable for marine use. These radios often have long battery life, good range, and rugged design.
  2. Icom IC-M73: Icom is known for producing high-quality marine communication equipment. The IC-M73 is a popular handheld VHF marine radio with features like waterproof construction, long battery life, and strong audio output.
  3. Standard Horizon HX870: Another reputable brand in the marine communication sector, Standard Horizon offers the HX870 handheld VHF radio. This model is known for its integrated GPS, DSC functionality, and rugged design.
  4. Simrad HH36: Simrad is a well-known name in the marine electronics industry. The HH36 is a handheld VHF radio with features like waterproof construction, long battery life, and a large display for easy readability.
  5. Garmin VHF 110i: Garmin is renowned for its GPS technology, but they also produce high-quality marine communication equipment. The VHF 110i is a handheld VHF radio with features like clear audio, DSC functionality, and easy-to-use interface.

Before making a decision, it’s essential to evaluate the specific needs of your superyacht and ensure that the chosen radio system complies with relevant regulations and standards for maritime communication in Europe. Additionally, consider factors like compatibility with existing onboard communication systems and ease of integration. Consulting with marine communication experts or professional installers can also provide valuable insights and recommendations tailored to your specific requirements

kenwood two way radio

Why the correct choice of coaxial cable in a two way radio repeater system design, is important

Why the correct choice of coaxial cable in a repeater system design, is important.

Selecting the correct type of coaxial cable is crucial for ensuring optimal performance in two-way radio repeater installations.

The coaxial cable serves as the transmission medium for radio frequency (RF) signals between the radio equipment and the antennas.

The choice of coaxial cable impacts various aspects of repeater performance, including signal loss, impedance matching, durability, and cost-effectiveness.

Here’s why the correct type of coaxial cable is important:

Signal Loss: Coaxial cables exhibit signal attenuation, or loss, as the RF signal travels along the cable.

The magnitude of signal loss depends on factors such as cable length, frequency, and the characteristics of the cable itself.

High-quality coaxial cables with low loss characteristics help minimise signal attenuation, allowing the repeater system to maintain strong signal integrity over longer distances.

Impedance Matching: Coaxial cables have a characteristic impedance, typically 50 or 75 ohms, that must match the impedance of the radio equipment and antennas.

Mismatched impedance can lead to signal reflections and loss of signal power, resulting in degraded performance and potential damage to the equipment.

Using coaxial cable with the correct impedance ensures proper signal transfer and impedance matching throughout the repeater system.

Frequency Range: Different coaxial cables have varying frequency ranges over which they can effectively transmit RF signals.

It’s essential to choose a coaxial cable that supports the frequency range of the repeater system’s operation.

Using a cable with inadequate frequency handling capabilities can result in signal distortion, attenuation, and poor performance, particularly at higher frequencies.

Durability and Environmental Factors: Two-way radio repeater installations are often deployed in outdoor or harsh environments where coaxial cables are exposed to weather elements, temperature variations, and physical stress.

The selected coaxial cable should be rugged and weatherproof, capable of withstanding environmental factors without degradation in performance or reliability.

Additionally, cables with UV-resistant jackets and corrosion-resistant connectors are preferred for long-term outdoor deployments.

Cost-Effectiveness: While high-quality coaxial cables may come at a higher initial cost, they offer superior performance and reliability, leading to lower maintenance and replacement costs over time.

Investing in quality coaxial cable upfront can result in a more robust and efficient repeater system with reduced downtime and operational expenses in the long run.

In summary, choosing the correct type of coaxial cable is essential for achieving optimal performance in two-way radio repeater installations.

It directly influences signal loss, impedance matching, frequency handling, durability, and cost-effectiveness of the repeater system.

By selecting high-quality coaxial cable that meets the specific requirements of the installation, operators can ensure reliable and efficient communication for the radio network.

What is WIMAX

WiMAX, short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a wireless communication standard that provides high-speed broadband connectivity over long distances. It is based on the IEEE 802.16 family of standards and is designed to deliver wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) and wide-area network (WAN) connectivity.

Here are key features and aspects of the standard:

1. Broadband Wireless Access:

  • WiMAX is designed to provide broadband wireless access, delivering high-speed internet connectivity to both fixed and mobile users.

2. Frequency Bands:

  • It operates in various frequency bands, including the 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and 5.8 GHz bands. The specific frequency bands used can vary depending on regulatory considerations in different regions.

3. Point-to-Multipoint Communication:

  • It supports point-to-multipoint communication, allowing a base station (access point) to communicate with multiple subscriber stations simultaneously.

4. Last Mile Connectivity:

  • One of the applications of WiMAX is providing last-mile connectivity, especially in areas where traditional wired broadband infrastructure is not readily available.

5. Mobility Support:

  • While WiMAX was initially designed as a fixed wireless access technology, the standard was later extended to support mobile applications, allowing users to connect to the network while on the move.

6. IEEE 802.16 Standards:

  • The IEEE 802.16 family includes multiple standards. The original standard was IEEE 802.16-2004, followed by amendments such as IEEE 802.16e-2005 for mobile WiMAX and IEEE 802.16m for advanced mobile WiMAX.

7. WiMAX Forum:

  • The WiMAX Forum is an industry association that promotes the adoption of WiMAX technology and ensures interoperability between different vendors’ equipment.

8. Coverage and Range:

  • WiMAX can provide coverage over long distances, making it suitable for serving both urban and rural areas. The range can extend to several kilometers from a base station.

9. Competition and Evolution:

  • While it was initially considered a competitor to other broadband technologies like DSL and cable, its adoption faced challenges. Long-Term Evolution (LTE), a competing 4G technology, gained broader acceptance, and many mobile operators shifted their focus to LTE and later 5G technologies.

Today, while it is still in use in some regions and specific applications, it is not as widely deployed as LTE and 5G for mobile broadband. The industry has moved toward the adoption of these newer technologies for enhanced performance and capabilities.

What is WIFI

What is WIFI

Wi-Fi, short for Wireless Fidelity, is a technology that enables wireless local area networking (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards. Wi-Fi allows devices such as computers, smartphones, tablets, and other wireless-enabled devices to connect to the internet and communicate with one another within a local network without the need for physical cables.

Here are some key aspects of Wi-Fi:

1. Wireless Standards:

  • Wi-Fi operates based on IEEE 802.11 standards, with different letters and numbers denoting various iterations of the technology. For example, Wi-Fi 6 is based on the IEEE 802.11ax standard.

2. Frequency Bands:

  • Wi-Fi devices can operate in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands. The 2.4 GHz band has a longer range but is more susceptible to interference, while the 5 GHz band offers higher data rates and is less congested.

3. Wireless Access Points (APs):

  • Wi-Fi networks consist of one or more access points, which are devices that transmit and receive Wi-Fi signals. Access points are often integrated into routers.

4. Security:

  • Wi-Fi networks use various security protocols, such as WPA3 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 3), to encrypt data and protect against unauthorized access.

5. SSID (Service Set Identifier):

  • Wi-Fi networks are identified by their SSID, which is a name that users can see when searching for available networks. It is essential to secure Wi-Fi networks with a strong password to prevent unauthorized access.

6. Modes and Bands:

  • Wi-Fi devices can operate in different modes, including Infrastructure mode (connecting to a network through an access point) and Ad-hoc mode (direct device-to-device connection). Dual-band and tri-band Wi-Fi routers support multiple frequency bands.

7. Evolution:

  • Wi-Fi technology has evolved over the years, with each new generation offering improved speed, capacity, and performance. Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 6E are the latest standards, providing faster data rates and better performance in crowded environments.

8. Hotspots:

  • Wi-Fi hotspots are locations where Wi-Fi access is available to the public, such as in coffee shops, airports, and libraries.

So to conclude, what is WIFI..

Wi-Fi is a ubiquitous technology, providing wireless connectivity in homes, businesses, public spaces, and educational institutions. It has become an integral part of modern life, enabling seamless internet access and connectivity for a wide range of devices.

ptt over cellular mast

Cellular networks

Cellular networks, including GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), are mobile communication technologies that enable wireless communication between mobile devices and provide voice and data services.

1. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications):

  • Introduction: GSM is a 2G (second-generation) cellular network standard that was developed to replace analog cellular networks. It is a digital technology that uses time-division multiple access (TDMA) for channel access.
  • Architecture: GSM networks are divided into cells, each served by a base station. Multiple cells together form a cellular network, and each cell has a corresponding base transceiver station (BTS).
  • Frequency Bands: GSM operates in various frequency bands, including the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands in Europe and the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands in North America.
  • Services: GSM provides voice services, Short Message Service (SMS), and data services (GPRS – General Packet Radio Service).

2. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System):

  • Introduction: UMTS is a 3G (third-generation) cellular technology that evolved from GSM. It provides higher data rates and additional services compared to GSM.
  • Architecture: UMTS employs a wider band of frequencies and uses a different air interface based on wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA). The network architecture includes Node-B (base station), Radio Network Controller (RNC), and a core network.
  • Frequency Bands: UMTS operates in various frequency bands, including the 2100 MHz band.
  • Services: UMTS supports higher data rates, enabling services like mobile internet, video calling, and multimedia messaging. It is also backward-compatible with GSM, allowing for seamless handovers between GSM and UMTS networks.

Key Features Common to Both GSM and UMTS:

  1. Cellular Architecture: Both GSM and UMTS networks are divided into cells, allowing for efficient use of the available frequency spectrum.
  2. Handover Capability: Mobile devices can seamlessly switch from one cell to another as they move, ensuring continuous connectivity.
  3. Global Standards: GSM and UMTS are global standards, facilitating international roaming and interoperability.
  4. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM): Both technologies use a SIM card that stores subscriber information, allowing users to easily switch devices while retaining their identity and services.
  5. Security: Both GSM and UMTS incorporate security features to protect communication, including encryption and authentication.

UMTS, being a 3G technology, provides higher data rates and more advanced services compared to GSM, which is a 2G technology. However, with the evolution of technology, both GSM and UMTS have been succeeded by 4G LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and 5G for even higher data rates and enhanced capabilities.