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OneWeb For Superyachts

Smooth Sailing with OneWeb: Advantages for Superyachts

Superyachts offer luxurious adventures on the high seas, and OneWeb satellite connectivity is making these voyages even more incredible. In this article, we’ll explore how OneWeb is transforming the superyacht sector, ensuring that your experience is nothing short of extraordinary.

1. Staying Connected, Everywhere

Superyacht journeys often take you far from the coastline, where regular internet connections might falter. With OneWeb, you can enjoy uninterrupted connectivity even in the middle of the ocean, keeping you connected to the world, no matter how remote your destination.

2. Lightning-Fast Internet

Imagine streaming your favorite movies or conducting video conferences while cruising in style. OneWeb offers high-speed internet that can handle all your entertainment and business needs, turning your yacht into a hub of productivity and leisure.

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3. Lag-Free Gaming and Entertainment

For gaming enthusiasts, low latency is a game-changer. Thanks to OneWeb’s low Earth orbit satellites, you can engage in online gaming without the frustrating lag, making your yacht the ultimate gaming retreat.

4. Chartering Opportunities

Superyachts are often chartered for special occasions or vacations. With OneWeb connectivity, you can offer your charter guests a premium experience, ensuring they have the connectivity they need for work, communication, and entertainment during their voyage.

5. Efficient Remote Operations

Managing a yacht often requires real-time monitoring of systems and equipment. OneWeb allows for remote diagnostics and monitoring, ensuring your yacht operates at peak efficiency. It’s like having a tech-savvy crew member watching over your vessel 24/7.

6. Enhanced Navigation and Safety

Safety at sea is of utmost importance. OneWeb’s connectivity supports advanced navigation systems and provides critical weather updates, enhancing the safety and peace of mind of everyone on board.

7. Seamless Entertainment

Superyachts are all about relaxation and entertainment. With OneWeb, you can enjoy uninterrupted streaming of music, movies, and TV shows, turning your yacht into a floating entertainment paradise.

8. Reliable Communications

Whether you’re contacting the mainland for supplies or checking in with loved ones, OneWeb ensures reliable communication, even in the most remote areas of the ocean. It’s like having a direct line to the world, no matter where you are.

9. Simplified Guest Experience

OneWeb simplifies the guest experience on your superyacht. Guests can connect their devices effortlessly, stream content, and stay in touch with family and friends, making their time on board even more enjoyable.

10. Future-Proofing

As technology evolves, so does OneWeb’s network. Investing in OneWeb connectivity ensures that your yacht is ready for future innovations, making it a valuable asset for years to come.

In conclusion, OneWeb satellite connectivity is a game-changer for the superyacht sector. It offers seamless, high-speed internet, enhances safety, and elevates the overall experience for both owners and charter guests. So, if you want to sail smoothly and stay connected in style, OneWeb is your ticket to a superyacht adventure like no other. Bon voyage!

    oneweb

    Improving Crew Welfare at Sea

    Title: Improving Crew Welfare at Sea: The Benefits of LEO Satellite Connectivity

    When it comes to life at sea, maintaining the welfare and happiness of the crew is paramount. For this reason, providing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite connectivity to ships has become a game-changer. Let’s explore the advantages of this technology and how it’s transforming life onboard for seafarers.

    1. Staying Connected with Loved Ones:

    One of the most significant advantages of LEO satellite connectivity is the ability for crew members to stay connected with their families and friends back home. Being away from loved ones for extended periods can be tough, but with reliable internet access, seafarers can make video calls, send messages, and share their experiences, easing the feeling of isolation and homesickness.

    2. Access to Entertainment:

    Imagine spending weeks or months at sea with limited sources of entertainment. LEO satellite connectivity opens up a world of possibilities. Crew members can stream movies, play online games, and access a variety of digital content during their downtime, making life onboard more enjoyable and relaxing.

    3. Enhancing Professional Development:

    Continuous learning and professional development are crucial for seafarers. With LEO satellite connectivity, crew members can access online training programs, educational resources, and certification courses while at sea. This not only improves their skills but also enhances their career prospects.

    4. Real-Time Communication and Safety:

    In emergency situations, fast and reliable communication can be a matter of life and death. LEO satellite connectivity ensures that crew members can communicate with the ship’s management, authorities, and emergency services in real-time. This capability enhances safety at sea and provides peace of mind to both crew members and their families ashore.

    5. Efficient Crew Management:

    Ship operators benefit from LEO satellite connectivity as well. They can efficiently manage crew schedules, logistics, and payroll, leading to more streamlined operations. It also helps in reducing administrative overhead and ensures crew members are well taken care of.

    6. Mental Health and Well-Being:

    Life at sea can be challenging, and seafarers often face stressful situations. LEO satellite connectivity supports crew members’ mental health by enabling access to counseling services and mental health resources. It provides a lifeline for those who may need someone to talk to during difficult times.

    7. Improving Crew Retention:

    Providing LEO satellite connectivity is a significant factor in retaining experienced crew members. Happy and connected crews are more likely to stay with a company, reducing turnover rates and the costs associated with training new personnel.

    In conclusion, LEO satellite connectivity has revolutionized life at sea, offering crew members a chance to stay connected, entertained, and informed while onboard. It not only enhances their welfare but also contributes to a safer and more efficient maritime industry. By investing in this technology, ship operators ensure that their crew members have the tools and resources they need to thrive both personally and professionally, making life at sea a better experience for everyone involved, improving crew welfare at sea.

      Connecting the World

      Connecting the World

      Connecting the world is a moral imperative, in our opinion.

      Recent figures suggest that less than half the world has internet access.

      Connectivity brings economic and cultural benefits.

      Connectivity also empowers women and girls, who currently have less access to the internet.

      Without the internet, they are kept at a disadvantage.

      Disadvantage in terms of education and empowerment.

      Disadvantage in terms of work opportunities.

      The Traditional Problem

      The traditional problem that faces telecommunications providers, is an economic one.

      Installing the necessary telecommunications infrastructure, is not economic in less populated areas.

      A typical cell tower, which provides the link between the mobile (cell) phone, and the network, only has a fairly short communications range.

      That is why there has to be many towers, spaced fairly close together.

      At the relatively high radio frequencies that are used (typically 900Mhz & 1800MHz, in UK), the range is short.

      This isn’t a problem in the UK, and other areas of high population density, but is in sparsely populated areas of the world.

      When a telecommunications provider installs equipment, there are a number of cost factors.

      In the case of a mobile phone system, there is the cell tower, and associated infrastructure.

      The Space Solution

      Satellites can cover large geographic areas of the earths surface, from Space.

      Traditionally however, there was a problem.

      The problem is called ‘Latency

      Latency is the delay in the signal reaching the receiver, after being transmitted.

      Radio waves are travelling at 186,000 miles per second.

      This sounds fast, but does mean signal delay.

      For data communications over the Internet, this isn’t desirable.

      Imagine trying to have a two-way live Zoom conversation, with delay in the data moving back and forth, between the participants.

      The Latency issue, can be vastly improved, by having satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

      This is because there is less distance for the radio waves to travel.

      Solution, well Kind of

      So why don’t we switch to using satellites for all of our Internet connectivity.

      Capacity and Bandwidth!

      LEO Satellites now provide worldwide coverage.

      However they could not handle all the required data of the Internet.

      That is why we need both terrestrial (earth based), and also Space based communications infrastructure.

      Connecting the world, is an imperative, as recognised by International bodies, such as the ITU.

        DTEx Marine Radio

        DTEx Marine Radios

        Entel’s DTEx Commercial Marine Series is a range of marine radios specifically designed for commercial use.

        They offer crystal-clear audio quality, long-range communication capabilities, and durable design.

        They are “intrinsically safe”, which means that they are designed to not produce sparks that could ignite flammable gases or dust in hazardous environments, making them suitable for use in potentially explosive atmospheres.

        This makes the Entel DTEx Commercial Marine Series a valuable tool for commercial boats and ships operating in hazardous environments.

        Key options, features and benefits of the tough and dependable Entel DTEx series, include:

        VHF or UHF, display & non-display models


        Industrial-grade design


        ATEX and IECEx intrinsically safe approvals for EU and non-EU markets


        Meets the essential EN60945 Maritime Approval


        IP68 – industry-leading submersible rating (2 meters, 4 hours)


        Digital mode (UHF only)


        Loud and intelligible audio (using the latest noise reduction technology) – ideal for high noise environments such as those experienced on deck at sea.


        High-visibility OLED display (high contrast white on black) – allowing for excellent readability in all light conditions.


        High-torque ergonomic controls and ultra-tactile buttons – making the radios easier to more reliably operate when using gloved hands.


        Fully submersible gold-plated battery & accessory connectors – ensuring ultimate protection against corrosion and other common saltwater hazards.

        DTEx Marine Radios, are available from stock.

        Contact us: 01522 740818

          satellite

          Optical Satellite Communications

          Optical Satellite communications refers to the use of laser technology to transmit data through the atmosphere using satellites.

          This technology is used to transmit large amounts of data, such as video and internet communications, over long distances.

          The main advantage of using optical communications is the high data rate that can be achieved, which is much faster than traditional radio frequency (RF) communications.

          Additionally, optical communications have a smaller wavelength than RF, which means they can transmit through the atmosphere with less loss of signal and interference.

          Optical communications via satellite consist of two main components: a ground station, which sends the data using a laser, and a satellite, which receives the data and transmits it to its destination.

          The satellite must be equipped with a highly sensitive detector and a highly accurate pointing system to ensure the data is received correctly.

          The ground station must also have a highly accurate pointing system to ensure the data is transmitted to the correct location on the satellite.

          Optical communications via satellite is still a developing technology and is not yet widely used, but it has the potential to revolutionize satellite communications by increasing the capacity and speed of data transmissions.

          RF Links

          RF (radio frequency) satellite links refer to the use of satellites to transmit and receive RF signals for various communications applications.

          These links can be used for a wide range of purposes, such as television and radio broadcasting, internet access, telephone communications, and GPS navigation.

          They are particularly useful for providing coverage in remote or hard-to-reach areas, or for establishing communication in emergency situations

            ATEX Intrinsically Safe radios

            ATEX

            ATEX stands for “ATmospheres EXplosibles.”

            It is a set of European Union regulations that govern the design and use of equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres.

            The regulations cover equipment and protective systems that may be used in areas where there is a risk of a explosion due to flammable gases, vapours, dusts, or fibres.

            The regulations are based on the principles of risk assessment, and aim to prevent explosions and minimize the harm caused by explosions that do occur.

            The regulations apply to equipment and protective systems that are used in a wide range of industrial environments, including oil and gas production, petrochemical and chemical processing, food and beverage production, and many other sectors.

            It is divided in two categories:

            ATEX 137 for the workplace (work environment)


            ATEX 95 for equipment intended for use in explosive atmospheres (product)
            Both categories are applicable in the EU member states and the equipment falling under this regulations must carry a mark and certificate of conformity to ATEX directives.

              Hytera PD405 UHF DMR Digital Radio

              Factory Radio Hytera PD405

              Hytera digital radio
              Hytera digital radio

              Factory Radio Walkie Talkie

              For industrial operations within a factory, we recommend the Hytera PD405 factory radio, for improving communications efficiency. It is an excellent upgrade for business process improvement.

              The factory radio has proved reliable with our industrial customers, and in fact we have never had one returned under warranty, due to failure.

              The Hytera PD405 is tough enough to withstand light water splashes, and light product manufacturing dust.

              If your factory has a lot of moisture and dust, then there are other options, such as the Entel DX400 series that we can recommend.

              For a product demonstration of the Hytera PD405 at your site, why not get in touch.

              Benefits of using radios such as the Hytera PD405, are staff safety and improving communications speed.

              Key Features of the Hytera PD405

              • MIL-STD-810 C/D/E/F/G standards
              • IP55 Compliance
              • Dual Mode (analogue & digital)
              • TDMA Direct Mode in DMO
              • 256 channel capacity, 3 zones
              • Supports mix (analogue & digital) channel
              • One Touch Call/Text message
              • Digital voice call function
              • Digital text message function (pre-programmable message)
              • VOX

              Standard Package

              • Radio
              • Standard Antenna
              • Li-ion Battery (1500mAh)
              • Single Charger & power supply
              • Leather Strap
                – Belt Clip

              RRP: £200.00 Ex. VAT

              Business Factory Radio – Choosing the right equipment for you.

              It can be confusing for a member of the public who is tasked with choosing a business safety radio for their business, either as the business owner, or as an employee.

              Fortunately we can help you understand the various options, as we recognise that most two-way radio dealers websites seem to be designed by ‘techies’ for techies.

              I have taken the liberty of looking at other dealers websites, and trying to imagine that I knew nothing about two-way radio.

              I am going to explain what all the jargon means, so that you can make an informed decision.

              Business Radios

              Business radios describe two-way radios that are used by professional business organisations.

              When reading websites you will come across terms such as:

              Lets start with Analogue (which would be logical I guess).

              Analogue two-way radios are available as Handheld (also known as ‘Hand-Portable’ or Walkie Talkies); Mobile (fitted in vehicles), and Base Stations which are the ones that would be at a fixed location, such as a desk.

              Analogue radios are the older technology (compared with Digital, which I will come on to later).

              This does not mean that analogue is necessarily a bad choice.

              Advantages of Analogue radio equipment is that it is generally cheaper to purchase than the newer digital equipment, which still caries a premium in price (though coming down).

              You also tend to get a better built radio when compared with a digital one at the same price, which might be a consideration if you are on a tight budget, and need a certain level of resistance to dust and moisture (known as Ingress Protection).

              Digital Radio

              Digital two way radio has been around for only a few years, and like in the early days of Video Recorders (For those old enough to remember them), there are two main competing standards that you will come across.

              The two factory radio standards are firstly DMR, & secondly dPMR.

              dPMR is the standard adopted by manufacturers, Icom & Kenwood.

              DMR is the standard adopted by manufacturers, Motorla, Hytera, Tait etc.

              DMR seems to be slowly winning, with Kenwood now also offering a DMR radio, as well as their dPMR radio range.

              As a business user I would recommend you largely ignore the fact that there are two standards, and focus on what the radio system can do for you.

              The two standards only become a consideration, when adding to existing digital radios that you may have. If this is the case, then you will need to stick with dPMR (or vice versa) to match your existing radios. We can help and advise you if needed.

              One final thing to mention about the two standards is, though they are defined standards there are slight differences in interpretations of the standard between manufacturers.

              This means that although for instance your DMR standard Hytera made radio is the same DMR standard as your motorola, some advanced functions may not work, though basic communications should. Ask us for help and advice if required.

              Security Radios

              We offer a comprehensive two way radio communications service in Lincoln, Hull & surrounding areas including offering security radios & equipment to local security businesses.

              Unlike many companies on the internet, we don’t just sell factory radio walkie talkies. Our Lincoln based business can service, repair & install two way security radios into vehicles. This is backed up with proper City & Guilds radio communications & electronics qualifications & experience. We also have professionally trained installation engineers to standard MPT1362.

                Hytera Digital Radios (yesway.co.uk)

                Lincoln Two Way Radio Communications sales and hire (yesway.co.uk)

                photo of an entel dx handheld radio

                Tamworth Manufacturer – Two Way Radio case study

                A Tamworth manufacturing business approached Yesway, seeking to improve their factory two way radio communications system.

                Tamworth, which is in the west midlands county of Staffordshire has many manufacturing businesses.

                The clients factory already had an aging analogue license free PMR446 two way radio system, but there were coverage issues, due to the site being spread over a large area.

                Yesway travelled to the clients Tamworth site, and carried out a full equipment inspection of their existing equipment.

                A comprehensive radio coverage range survey was carried out, to identify the coverage blackspots.

                It was identified that parts of the furthermost goods yard from the main office, had no communication coverage at all.

                The clients manufacturing premises is spread across two separate sites, with a road between them.

                Another issue is that like many modern factories, the buildings are largely made of steel.

                Radio waves do not like penetrating steel, and causes what is known as attenuation.

                Attenuation is when the strength of the radio signal being transmitted or received, is reduced by physical objects.

                Physical objects can include man made objects such as buildings, or natural features of the landscape, such as trees and hills.

                As the buildings were largely metal structures (which radio waves don’t like), presented am exciting challenge for our Yesway engineering team.

                Of course being Yesway, our team was fired up to improve the customers radio system.

                The Yesway team initially tried a VHF Hytera PD405 radio, but it was established that VHF was not going to work best with the clients site.

                We then tried UHF, using our demo Entel DX series radios.

                UHF worked better than VHF at the location, but there were still a few blackspots in communication coverage.

                The conventional solution would have been to add a radio repeater.

                A radio repeater is a device that boosts signal range, by receiving and re-transmitting the radio signal.

                A radio repeater however would have doubled the cost to the customer.

                Yesway engineers decided to try something else first.

                We cut a helical antenna to the actual resonant frequency length. This optimised the performance of the handheld radio antenna.

                With this optimisation of the handheld radios antenna, full coverage was achieved, at half the cost of adding a repeater.

                The customer therefore saved money, and still gained full site coverage.

                  ENTEL Lincolnshire

                  Organising an Event Using Radio Communications

                  Tips for Organising a Public event

                  entel dx482 two way radio hire
                  Superior IP68 Waterproof Entel Dx482 two way radio communications event hire

                  Organising an event. A critical consideration when organising an event is how to effectively manage your staff. We have the solution from £10 per unit.

                  Project management of an event involves several steps:

                  Define the event’s goals and objectives: Clearly define what you want to achieve with the event and how you will measure success.

                  Create a project plan: This should include a detailed timeline, tasks, and a list of resources (e.g. personnel, equipment) required to execute the event.

                  Build a budget: Determine the cost of the event and secure funding.

                  Assemble a team: Identify and assemble the team members who will help plan and execute the event.

                  Coordinate logistics: Arrange for the venue, catering, equipment, and other logistics required for the event.

                  Plan and design event elements: Design the overall look and feel of the event, including themes, decor, and lighting.

                  Promotion and marketing: Develop a strategy for promoting the event and reach the target audience.

                  Execution: Execute the event according to plan.

                  Evaluation: Measure the success of the event against the goals and objectives defined in step 1, and gather feedback from attendees.

                  Follow-up: Follow up with attendees, sponsors, and vendors after the event.

                  It’s important to keep communication among the team clear and open, prioritize the critical path of the event and also having risk management plan in place before an event would minimize the chance of the unexpected event that might happen during the event.

                  While using mobile phones & shouting may be adequate at the pre event setup stage, problems can occur during the event. We speed up communications with instant response solutions.

                  Another problem is the noise levels that can be generated during the event, which we have a solution for. Earpieces allow the user to hear conversations better, as the speaker effectively sits in the ear, rather than on the radio.

                  Live music events present a particular challenge, as it can be hard to hear a mobile phone ring.

                  It is also hard to hear what is being said by the caller.

                  A hand-held, or hand-portable , two-way radio can utilise accessories , such as noise canceling headsets.

                  Another benefit of using two-way radio for management of events, is speed.

                  In an emergency situation, such as an accident, two-way radio allows the emergency message to be sent straight away.

                  By contrast, a mobile phone would require you to select the correct number, then dial and wait for an answer.

                  In an emergency situation, time can make all the difference.

                  Once you have decided to us radio communications at your event, you have further considerations.

                  What some people do at this point is Google it, and then look for the cheapest price.

                  Once a website has been selected to click on, the questions start.

                  Are you sure whether a VHF or UHF system will work best?

                  Entel radio dealer
                  Entel IP68 Rated Digital Radio

                  The answer is it could be one or the other, or both, or none!

                  Let me explain,

                  Generally a VHF system will give better communication range in Open Country.

                  As most events are outside, you may decide this is what you want, and need.

                  But wait! Will you also be operating inside metal framed buildings, or multi-storey buildings, or forested areas? If this is the case, then a UHF based system might be for you.?

                  The best way is to have a company come out to you and properly assess and radio test the event site before the event.

                  This way, any ‘black spots’ in coverage can be ‘engineered out’ by making the correct equipment choices. In collaboration with your radio communications engineer, problems can be eliminated before the event.

                  Sometimes whether you choose VHF or UHF, neither provide acceptable radio coverage & range.

                  This situation demands a radio engineering approach involving a device called a radio repeater.

                  A radio repeater is a device that boosts the range of a radio signal.

                  This is done by receiving & then re-transmitting the radio signal.

                  The repeater is connected to a high (usually mast mounted) aerial or antenna, via a low loss coaxial cable.

                  Having an antenna (aerial) mounted high on a mast helps with the radio communication range.

                  This is because radio waves at VHF & UHF frequencies are normally ‘line of sight’.

                  Therefore height helps with range.

                  Some of the discount two-way radio hire companies will hire you a repeater, with a couple ‘clip on’ antenna.

                  This in theory can work, as one antenna receives the signal, and the second antenna re-transmits the signal.

                  However, the repeater can become ‘DE-sensitised’ if the transmit & receive antennas are not enough apart.

                  From what I have seen on the discount radio hire websites selling this option, the antennas do not have enough length of coaxial cable to adequately space them apart.

                  A DE-sensitised repeater will give poorer range.

                  A cheap solution therefore will not give you maximum range.

                  The ‘proper’ way of using a repeater is to use only one single antenna, a suitable erected mast, and a device called a ‘duplexer’.

                  The duplexer allows one antenna to both receive and transmit at the same time.

                  This clever device (duplexer) provides better range & performance than the two antenna ‘cheaper’ systems, as less likely to suffer from DE-sensitisation.

                  You may also be given the option to choose between Digital, and Analogue systems.

                  Feel free to ask about the difference.

                  Finally, who needs to speak to who?

                  For example car park attendants, first aid staff, or organisers / management.

                  A range of sophisticated options and channels can be programmed into the radio equipment.

                  There is a new two-way radio technology called POC.

                  POC stands for ‘Push to Talk Over Cellular’, and combines the instant communication (no numbers to dial) of traditional two-way radio, with the wide area coverage of a mobile phone.

                  POC uses the data service of the mobile phone network to transmit and receive voice communications.

                  Whilst POC is great for many business cases, there are potentially some things to consider, when using for an event.

                  The main issue with using POC for a large events such as concerts, is mobile phone system overload.

                  As POC uses the same cellular data network, as all the audience, it can become overloaded.

                  Imagine all those concert goers uploading photos and videos to social media at the same time, it can cause issues, if not considered.

                  Again, feel free to ask for help.

                  Our phone number is (01522) 740818, and we are based in Lincoln, but can travel to your event site.

                  We always recommend a proper site survey as part of organising an event, to ensure maximum radio performance, and therefore event safety.

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                    ptt over cellular mast

                    PTT over Cellular Two-Way Radio

                    PTT over Cellular, or Push to Talk over cellular, as it is also referred to is a method of two-way radio communication.

                    As the name suggests, PTT over Cellular uses cellular networks, rather than radio-to-radio, or radio-to-radio via a repeater, that traditional two-way radio systems use.

                    For those reading who are not familiar with the term ‘cellular network’, let me explain. The cellular network is the existing communications infrastructure that makes your mobile work.

                    You are probably familiar with seeing those metal towers by the side of the road with antennas on them, well many of them are the receiving and transmitting antennas for the mobile phone network.

                    Those towers enable the radio signal to move to and from your mobile phone, allowing them to be mobile. A mobile phone is basically a different form of handheld two-way radio, operating on a higher frequency (typically around 900Mhz or 1800Mhz).

                    PTT over Cellular combines the advantages of a mobile phone, with the call speed of a traditional two-way radio.

                    With PTT over Cellular the user can communicate almost instantly, by pressing a button, rather than having to dial a number.

                    This speed advantage can be critical in some situations, such as an emergency. This makes the system great for improving business safety and efficiency, though there are some caveats.

                    A caveat, is that the mobile phone network, which is used by the system, can become overloaded in emergency situations.

                    This is because lots of people may start to use their mobile phones, to record and send images and video, to social media accounts.

                    Therefore this needs to be considered, for use in locations such as large public events, and areas with a lot of people, such as city spaces.

                    In this situation, traditional two-way radio, may be a better option. We also provide this.

                    The handsets used with PTT over Cellular networks, can either be shaped like the traditional handheld two-way radio, or just a special app installed on a mobile phone.

                    A handset that we would recommend is the new Submersible Entel DN series.

                    The Entel DN series radio is available in both SIM, and SIM free versions.

                      Push to Talk over Cellular

                      https://yesway.co.uk

                      Fuses in Radio Equipment power Supplies

                      The importance of fuses in radio equipment power supplies

                      A safe two-way radio equipment installation requires the ability to quickly disconnect the supply to the equipment if a fault develops. Fuses in radio equipment are a cost-effective solution, for equipment safety.

                      What are Electrical Fuses

                      Fuses are devices that protect equipment installations, from excess electrical current.

                      Excess current is caused by a fault in the equipment, or system wiring, and can cause equipment damage, or even fire.

                      The fuse works by ‘blowing’ if a certain current through it is exceeded. When the fuse ‘blows’, the electrical current ceases to flow, due to a physical break inside the fuse, preventing current flow through it.

                      Types of Fuses

                      Electrical fuses come in a variety of package types, and current ratings.

                      For example, package types include ‘cartridge’ and ‘blade’ designs.

                      Fuses are also made to blow at different current thresholds, so can be matched to the piece of equipment it is connected to.

                      There are also fuse types known as ‘slow blow’ fuses.

                      Slow Blow fuses are designed not to blow due to a short spike in electrical current. Short spikes can be caused by surge currents, which is a very temporary increase in current when a piece of equipment is started.

                      Importance of correct Fuses

                      Fitting an incorrect fuse can either reduce safety, or reliability.

                      For example, if a fuse is fitted that has too high a current blow rating, then if a fault develops with the equipment, the electricity will find another weak point in the system. This weak point could be the radio equipment itself, and the excess current could damage it.

                      On the other hand, fitting a fuse that has too small a current rating will reduce system reliability.

                      This is because the current being drawn by the radio equipment is more than the fuse can cope with, and therefore will blow.

                      Two-way radio equipment, draws less current when receiving, than when it is transmitting. Therefore the fitting of a too-small fuse, may not become apparent until the two-way radio transmits.

                      Always refer to the manufacturer’s equipment specifications to understand the maximum current that the equipment will draw, and select a fuse slightly larger.

                      If no manufacturers data is available, then using an Ammeter in series with the DC supply, can determine the current drawn. Remember, however, to also test on transmit, and with maximum transmit power selected (if an option).

                      (c) 2018-2023 Craig Miles / Yesway Ltd.

                        https://yesway.co.uk

                        industry 4.0

                        Build a Lorawan Gateway

                        What is  Lorawan

                        First of all, what is Lorawan.  It is a wireless technology that allows small amounts of data to be sent between a remote sensor (such as a river level detector), and the Internet.

                        Lorawan technology is very efficient at sending the sensor data over long distances, whilst consuming very little power. This means that a the sensor devices can be battery powered, whilst the batteries last for years.

                        What is a Gateway then

                        A Lorawan Gateway is the device that receives the wireless signals containing data, that has been transmitted (using Lora wireless technology) from the remote sensors (river level monitoring, air quality etc).

                        Once the  Gateway has received the  wirelessly transmitted data, the gateway forwards the data onto the Internet.

                        Gateway connection to the Internet can be via a variety of means, such as Wifi, Ethernet, 3G, 4G, 5G etc.

                        Building the Gateway

                        For beginners to building their own gateway, I would recommend joining, or founding a local Things Network .

                        The Lorawan Gateway that I am going to describe here, is designed to operate on the Things Network, however other lora networks can easily be installed.

                        The main components that you will need are:-

                        1) A Concentrator board from IMST of Germany. The Concentrator board is the wireless communications part of the system, responsible for receiving the wireless data signals, from the remote environmental sensors (Air quality sensors etc).

                        2) A small computer to store the software that controls the Concentrator board. We are going to use the UK designed Raspberry PI 3.

                        A Micro SD Card, for holding the software used by the Raspberry PI.  A small 4 GB card is fine.

                        3) A suitable Antenna (or Aerial), with pigtail connecting cable.

                        4) A suitable 2 Amp rated power supply, with a micro USB connector.

                        5)  7 Female to Female connecting leads, suitable for raspberry PI.

                        4) A suitable case, to house the components.

                        The first thing I need to make you aware of is the risk of static electricity, to your IMST ic880a Concentrator and Raspberry PI.

                        Static can damage the sensitive electronic components, therefore it is advisable to take precautions, such as not touching the board components, and wearing an anti static wrist strap.

                        The first thing you need to do is to format the micro SD card, that will be fitted to the raspberry PI, to hold the gateway software.

                        The SD card association has a free piece of software, for Windows PC and Mac, to do this. My card was already formatted, so I skipped this step.

                        The next step is to burn the actual software that will power your gateway, onto the Raspberry PI.

                        To do this, I used https://etcher.io/    

                        I first installed Etcher onto my  linux desktop computer. As most people use Windows PC, or Mac, you will need to find a suitable alternative to Etcher.

                        I also downloaded the operating system needed to run the Raspberry Pi, which is called Raspbian Stretch Lite , onto my desktop PC.

                        Put your micro SD card into your computers micro SD card reader. If your computer (like mine) does not have a card reader, then external USB plug in ones can be purchased cheaply (I got mine from my local Asda supermarket for £6).

                        Fire up Etcher, or whatever card  burning software you prefer, and select the copy of Raspbian Stretch Lite , that you previously downloaded to your PC.

                        Follow the instructions, and burn the operating system software onto the micro SD card.

                        Once you have successfully burned your Raspbian Stretch Lite, onto your SD card, insert it into the Raspberry Pi (the slot is on the underside of the Pi).

                        The next thing to do is to connect your Raspberry Pi to a suitable monitor (I used a TV, that had a HDMI connection), and also connect a USB keyboard, power supply, and mouse.

                        The power supply should be 5 Volts DC, and Raspberry Pi power supplies are widely available. I used a USB phone charger, with 5 Volts output, and a current rating of 2000mA.

                        Boot up your Raspberry Pi (connect the power), and you will see lots of computer code scrolling across your screen (if you have done everything successfully, so far).

                        When the Raspberry Pi asks you for a user name and password, use the following default ones (the  bit after the  ‘ : ‘ ).

                        Username: Pi

                        Password: Raspberry

                        After you have successfully logged in, type:

                         sudo raspi-config

                        Numbered options will now hopefully be on your monitor screen.

                        Select [5] Interfacing Options, and then P4 SPI

                        Then select [7] Advanced Options , and then [A1] Expand Filesystem.

                        You now need to exit the raspi-config utility, either by hitting the ‘CTRL’  and  ‘X’ keys, or by typing sudo reboot

                        Next you are going to Configure the locales and time zone.

                        Type this in, to set the locales, and follow instruction.

                        sudo dpkg-reconfigure locales

                        Next, type this in to set time zone.

                        sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

                        The next stage is to update the raspberry Pi software, do this by typing:

                        sudo apt-get update

                        Then install any upgrades to the operating system software, by typing sudo apt-get upgrade

                        Next we are going to install Git , which is needed to be able to download the Things Network software from Github.

                        Type:

                        sudo apt-get install git

                        The next step is to create a user called TTN (the things network).  This user will eventually replace the default raspberry pi user, which we will delete.

                        sudo adduser ttn

                        Then:    sudo adduser ttn sudo

                        Logout, by typing logout

                        Once you have logged out, log back in using the user name and password that you have just set up, when you added a user.

                        You can now delete the default Raspberry Pi user, by typing

                        sudo userdel -rf pi

                        Set the WIFI  SSID and password details, which can be found on the back of your home router / Hub (usually).

                        To set the WIFI details type

                        sudo nano /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf 

                        Once you have typed in the above text, you should see some code on the screen. Add the following to the end of the existing code, making sure that you enter your SSID and password details, in place of the shown text.

                        network=

                        {
                        ssid="The_SSID_of_your_wifi"
                        psk="Your_wifi_password"

                        }

                        Now we are going to clone the installer from Github. This will download the software which runs the gateway, from the Github repository.  Type each of the following three code lines into your Pi, one at a time, hitting the return key after each line of code.

                          git clone -b spi https://github.com/ttn-zh/ic880a-gateway.git ~/ic880a-gateway
                          cd ~/ic880a-gateway
                          sudo ./install.sh spi

                        Identifying the Gateway

                        The software will give the gateway the default name of ttn-gateway.

                        This however may need to be changed, to prevent issues with other Things Network Gateways within wireless range.

                        Wiring it Up

                        The next step is to connect the Concentrator board, to the Raspberry Pi, and also connect the antenna.

                        The components including the antenna should be mounted in a protective box,  and the antenna connected to the Concentrator board.

                        It is very important that the Concentrator board is not powered up, with no suitable antenna connected, of damage could occur to the board.

                        Once the antenna is connected, then the next step is to connect the Concentrator to the Raspberry Pi.

                        Connect using female to female connecting wires, as follows:

                        iC880a Concentrator pin Description RPi physical pin
                        21 Supply 5V 2
                        22 GND 6
                        13 Reset 22
                        14 SPI CLK 23
                        15 MISO 21
                        16 MOSI 19
                        17 NSS 24

                        IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:

                        It is important that you identify the correct pins, by referring to the manufactures data sheets (Both IMST & Raspberry Pi).

                        We accept no liability for loss or damage caused, by following these information only Lorawan Gateway instructions.

                        For help, as to which pin is which on the Concentrator and Raspberry Pi boards, why not get in touch.

                        I also offer workshop training, where I can train your students to build their own Lorawan Gateways.

                        @acraigmiles

                        www.craigmiles.co.uk

                        Craig Miles (C) 2018 – 2023 , all images and content, unless stated separately.

                          Internet of Things | Two Way Radio Wireless Communications – Yesway Communications

                          LPWAN

                          LoraWAN Advantages for IOT

                          History of Two Way Radio

                          Radio communications systems started to appear in the late 19th Century, with pioneers like Marconi sending signals across the Atlantic by morse code.

                          Soon such systems were being rapidly adopted by both government and industry, as an alternative to the existing ‘Wired’ telegraph systems.

                          Radio offered advantages over the Telegraph system, due to cheaper infrastructure costs. This is because the telegraph system required the purchase and installation of telegraph wires & poles.

                          Radio communications, on the other hand, did not require expensive long distance wires, and the installation of many telegraph poles.

                          Radio proved to be particularly cost-effective compared to the telegraph, for international communications, which required undersea cable installation.

                          There were some disadvantages of early radio communications systems, however.

                          One such disadvantage was call privacy, as early radio systems did not use the modern encryption methods available on radio systems today.

                          This meant that confidential messages could be easily eavesdropped, by ‘Third Parties’.

                          This was an issue for both government and business users, but modern systems have overcome this.

                          A famous early example of radio communications use was the ‘Titanic’ ship disaster of April 1912. The Titanic is a state of the art ship that had been equipped with a two-way radio system, which used Morse Code for communicating messages.

                          As the ship was sinking, radio messages were able to be sent out for help, and it was the first time that the new emergency code ‘SOS’ was used.

                          Although there was a massive loss of life, many lives were undoubtedly saved due to being able to get the message out to rescue ships in the area that they were sinking.

                          Without radio communications, the first indication of the disaster would have been, when the ship failed to arrive in New York as scheduled.

                          In 1922 the BBC was formed in the UK, and for the first time, the ordinary (nongeek) public was able to experience radio. Although public broadcasting is only one way of communication, it is worth mentioning as a milestone in the history of radio communications.

                          World War Two necessitated innovative approaches to communications, and the American company Motorola was the first to develop a handheld portable ‘Walkie Talkie’.

                          As the Transistor and solid-state electronics were not invented till the 1950s, the wartime Walkie Talkie used ‘Thermionic Valves’ (Tubes in the USA). This meant that they were not particularly efficient, and quite large in size.

                          The Motorola-designed Walkie Talkie was however an important step forward in radio communications development.

                          Private commercial use of Two Way Radio by businesses in the UK started just after the war in the late 1940s. This allowed businesses to instantly communicate with their drivers out on the road and was very useful for Taxi firms.

                          Early equipment was not particularly efficient compared with the latest Digital & Analogue radios available now. Reasons for this include, inefficient use of frequency bands (wide bandwidth), and less efficient electronics available to the designers of the equipment.

                          In equipment prior roughly to the 1980s, the frequency that the radio was required to operate on (set by what is now OFCOM), was controlled by a ‘Crystal Oscillator’.

                          These had to be custom made for a particular frequency and then installed into the Two-Way Radio. Once installed, they needed to be set up using a Radio Communications Test Set.

                          Modern equipment does not require crystals to be purchased and installed but does instead require the radio to be connected to a computer system and programmed to the required frequency and options.

                          Modern Two Way radio systems are sometimes also integrated into the internet, and it is possible to communicate using a handheld Walkie Talkie, from a field in the UK to a factory in Australia.

                          To do this the signal is received from the handheld radio by a Digital Repeater Base station located near and within range of the handheld radio. The voice signal is then fed onto the internet by the Repeater.

                          At the Australian end is another internet-connected Repeater, which then transmits the voice signal out to the nearby Australian factory worker’s handheld Walkie Talkie.

                          When the Australian worker talks back, the process works in reverse.

                          For more information on the history of two-way radio, check out other articles on our site.

                          Author: Craig Miles BSc( Hon’s), PGCE

                            https://yesway,co.uk

                            Digital Two Way Radio

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                            single phase as sine wave picture

                            Applying the Internet of Things (IOT) to Induction Motor Monitoring

                            Applying the Internet of Things (IOT) to Induction Motor Monitoring

                            Induction motors are found in all sorts of industries and applications, both on land and offshore.

                            Smaller Induction Motors (roughly drawing up to 10 Amps Full Load Current) most commonly use Direct Online Starting (D.O.L) methods.

                            Larger motors typically use starting methods such as Star-Delta starting, which keeps the starting current (surge / inrush) down.

                            The Internet of Things offers 24/7 monitoring of systems, which can intelligently react based on the input data provided by the networked sensors.

                            The main parameters of induction motors that could be measured are:-

                            Voltage (individual phase)

                            Current being drawn by motor.

                            Over current in individual phases, such as imbalances due to single phasing faults.

                            Phase Winding temperature based on measurement using thermistors.

                            Vibration Monitoring, indicating bearing failure.

                            Motor speed (inc comparison of actual to Synchronous field speed calculated speed).

                            What do we mean by the above parameters:-

                            Firstly lets consider the term, ‘Voltage (Individual Phase)’.

                            Voltage (individual phase)

                            The term ‘individual phase’ is applicable in three-phase supply systems.

                            Three-phase supplies are commonly used in industrial factories and workshops.

                            It is rare to have a three-phase supply in a domestic home.

                            To understand a three-phase supply, lets first consider a single-phase voltage supply.

                            In single-phase voltage systems (as found in most homes), an ac sine waveform ‘cycles’ above and below the centre zero volts level, at a frequency of 50 times a second.

                            This is known as 50 Hertz, or Hz, and is the supply frequency used in most, but not all, countries around the world.

                            single phase as sine wave picture

                            ac sine wave.

                            The picture above, shows a representation of an AC (Alternating Current) Sine Wave. The line through the middle would be zero volts, and as you can see the voltage rises and falls over time (time periods, starting at the left of the picture, and moving right).

                            For an AC voltage supply frequency of 50 Hz, 50 complete sine waves would be completed, per second.

                            Now that (hopefully) you understand what a sine wave is, you need to know that in a single-phase system, you have one sine wave, that goes up and down over time (as in above picture).

                            A three-phase voltage supply, has three sine waves at the same time. NOT ONE, BUT THREE!

                            Each of the three sine waves, is spaced 120 degrees apart, which means in plain English, that they rise and fall, at different times to each other.

                            For the purposes of Induction Motor Monitoring, you might want to monitor the phase wire, to check whether the voltage is on or off.

                            If the Induction Motor was a single-phase type, then obviously if the voltage supply was off, the motor would stop.

                            However, the single-phase motor may be tucked away from view, in a corner of the factory. Therefore being able to monitor the single individual phase supply, is still useful for an IOT induction motor monitoring system.

                            Being able to monitor all three voltage supply wires, to a three-phase induction motor, is even more useful.

                            If one of the three voltage supply wires, to the induction motor stopped supplying voltage, the motor would continue to run.

                            The motor would not run well on only two supply wires, but may go unnoticed, if in an out of the way location.

                            This is why using an IOT monitoring system, to detect the voltage of each of the three voltage supply wires, is useful.

                            Current being drawn by motor

                            Each Induction Motor will have a manufacturers specification for how much current is drawn, both at startup, and when fully running.

                            For more information on induction motor monitoring , get in touch.

                            (c) Craig Miles 2015-2020. All rights reserved. www.craigmiles.co.uk @acraigmiles

                            Internet of Things | Two Way Radio Wireless Communications – Yesway Communications

                            entel dx482 two way radio

                            Two-way Radio for Farms

                            For Agriculture

                            Farmers are increasingly choosing to use two-way radio for farms, instead of mobile phones for a number of reasons:

                            1)   Higher reliability than mobile phones in sparse rural areas  due to poor phone coverage.

                            2) More rugged design of two-way radio handsets. Models from Hytera  & Tait for example can survive being dropped on the hard ground, or even into water.

                            A handheld radio that we would recommend for farmers is the Entel DX482, which is IP68 rated. This means that it can withstand being dropped in water, so is perfect for outside work activities.

                            3)   Time saving because you just press transmit & talk, rather than having to dial a number & wait for connection. Great for emergency situations, & a safety feature.

                            4)   Cheap to run, as you have no call charges to pay, and your employees can’t make private calls, costing you money & lost time. For handheld only use, a 5 year Ofcom licence can be obtained, for only £75.

                            The licence allows use of a number of  shared frequencies, and is not area dependent. This means that you can use the handheld radios throughout the UK, without being restricted to a particular set geographic area.

                            5)   ‘Lone Worker’ features from manufacturers such as Vertex-Standard allow safety monitoring of workers, which helps farming safety.

                            6)   Range can be extended worldwide through the use of repeaters, and other modern IP technology, so distance now no object for modern two-way radio for farms.

                            Radio Migration from Legacy Systems

                            Many farmers already have existing radio systems that have been in place for many years.

                            Unless the system is less than five years old, then it is likely to be what is known as ‘Analogue’.

                            Even if the system is newer than five years, it could still be analogue, rather than Digital, as the price of analogue until recently was quite a bit less than Digital.

                            These days, in 2021, the price difference between the older Analogue radios, and the newer Digital radios has narrowed, and we would recommend Digital.

                            The reasons for us recommending farmers start to migrate their existing Analogue radios to Digital include:-

                            • Better coverage at the fringes of transmission range.
                            • The voice quality stays great at the fringes of coverage, and does not suffer interference.
                            • Battery life of handheld radios is better, compared to analogue handheld radios.
                            • Digital radios are harder to eavesdrop on.

                            You can keep your existing Analogue system, and gradually replace the radios with the more modern digital system, using what are known as ‘Migration Radios’.

                            These two-way radio for farms, such as the Hytera PD415 handhelds, are capable of operating in both Digital & Analogue modes.

                            Therefore you can could for example communicate in digital mode between two PD415 radios, whilst also being able to communicate with your older analogue radios as well (in Analogue).

                            These ‘Migration Radios’ , such as the Hytera PD415 offer farmers the choice to avoid a large initial expense of a new Digital System. Instead, farmers can gradually replace their existing Analogue radio system over time.

                            Repeaters

                            Repeaters are devices that boost communication range.

                            Repeaters receive a weak signal and retransmit it, improving two way radio for farms.

                            By retransmitting the signal at a higher power, further range is enabled.

                            Another reason to use repeaters, is obstacles.

                            Obstacles include both natural and manmade structures.

                            Examples of natural obstacles include hills and mountains.

                            Examples of mademade obstacles include buildings and bridges.

                            Obstacles matter to radio signals.

                            Basically they block or attenuate radio signals.

                            Attenuation means reduces the power of the signal.

                            Reducing the power of the signal, reduces communications range.

                            A classic use of a radio repeater is to overcome a hill.

                            Hills will block radio signals above 30 MHz.

                            Radio signals above 30Mhz are normally known as ‘line of sight’.

                            The term ‘line of sight’ is slightly misleading, as signals will pass through a building.

                            Therefore you don’t actually have to be able to see a clear path between transmitting and receiving radio.

                            However hills block radio waves, so a hilltop repeater overcomes this.

                            Placing a repeater on a hill allows signals to be received from one side of the hill, and boosted to both sides of the hill.

                            This is because the repeater antenna is physically above the top of the hill.

                            Why VHF isnt always best for Farmers

                            VHF is short for Very High Frequency, and refers to the range of frequencies within the electromagnetic spectrum.

                            The frequencies classed as VHF range between 30 MegaHertz, up to 300 MegaHertz.

                            MegaHertz btw is a million Hertz, and is useually written as MHz.

                            Many farmers with existing systems are operating on VHF.

                            This is the case for a few reasons:-

                            The first reason is that traditionally VHF equipment was cheaper than UHF equipment to purchase.

                            Therefore farmers who have had systems for many years, may have gone VHF for this reason.

                            A second reason for the popular choice of VHF among farmers is theoretical range considerations.

                            In open countryside, without signal reducing objects in the way, VHF radio signals should travel further.

                            I say should because thats the theory based on physics, but not necessarily the real life experience.

                            Metal Buildings

                            Buildings are one type of physical object that can block radio signals from reaching their required destination.

                            Buildings can either totally block the signal, or reduce the signal level, therefore reducing communication range.

                            Metal buildings can be a particular problem, and from my experience, especially at VHF frequencies.

                            Wavelength

                            Wavelength is the inverse of  the radio frequency.

                            What this means is that a frequency of 160 MHz will have a longer Wavelength than a radio frequency of 460 MHz.

                            A longer Wavelength (lower frequency) will have a harder time fitting into small spaces (im not making this up btw).

                            The longer wavelength at VHF compared to UHF (Ultra High Frequency), sometimes prevents communication in small areas of buildings.

                            Why not use an in-building Repeater

                            You could use a device called a repeater inside the building, to improve coverage, but why.

                            What we have found from experience, is that the additional expense of an in-building repeater, can be avoided through careful antenna optimisation and choice of frequency.

                            UHF in our experience actually performs better for farmers with metal buildings, as the smaller wavelength can get through doors and around internal objects better than VHF.

                            Conclusion

                            UHF in theory won’t go as far as VHF, but it very much depends on where on the farm you need to communicate with.

                            Rather than just buying an off the shelf solution, we tailor our solutions to meet you communication requirements.

                            In the real world UHF may be better, especially if you mainly wish to use handheld radios.

                            Get in touch for bespoke help with your two-way radio for farms.

                            01522 740818

                            © 2011-2021 Yesway Communications

                            Hytera RD985 Repeater

                            Installing a Radio Repeater

                            Installing a radio repeater has two advantages.

                            The first advantage is an increase in communications range.

                            The second advantage is that it overcomes signal dead spots.

                            What I mean by dead spots, are areas of the desired coverage area, that radio signals cant reach.

                            Reasons for dead spots

                            Dead spots are caused by the received signal being too weak, or blocked.

                            If the received signal is too weak, then it is below the set signal threashold, to operate the receiver.

                            Signal attenuation is the term for the signal being weakened.

                            Objects in the landscape between the transmitter and receiver, will attenuate the signal strength.

                            Objects can be natural landscape features, or made by humans.

                            Natural features include valleys and caves.

                            Human made objects include buildings and bridges.

                            An alternative reason for dead spots is signal blocking.

                            The signal is blocked by certain materials used in buildings, such as metal.

                            Hills and mountains will also block the signal, as they are too thick for the signal to pass through.

                            What does it do

                            The repeaters purpose is to boost the signal strength.

                            It does this by receiving a weak signal, and simultaneously re-transmitting it.

                            The re-transmitted signal is much stronger than the received signal.

                            The stronger signal therefore boosts communication range.

                            Different Types

                            There are several different types of repeater.

                            Older repeaters will be analogue.

                            Newer repeaters will be digital, or capable of both.

                            The two main digital repeater standards are dPMR & DMR.

                            DMR standard is the most popular amongst manufacturers, and hence what we reccomend.

                            We reccomend DMR, as there is more equipment available.

                            VHF or UHF

                            Another consideration when installing a repeater, is radio frequency.

                            VHF is short for Very High Frequency.

                            UHF is short for Ultra High Frequency.

                            VHF and UHF are known as frequency bands.

                            VHF frequencies range from 30 MHz up to 300 MHz.

                            UHF frequencies range from 300 MHz to 3 GHz.

                            Written by: Craig Miles

                              yesway communications

                              Radio Signal Propagation

                              Radio signal propagation refers to the way in which radio signals travel through the environment. There are several factors that affect radio signal propagation, including:

                              Frequency: Different frequencies have different characteristics when it comes to signal propagation. For example, higher frequency signals (such as those in the microwave range) are more easily absorbed by buildings and trees, while lower frequency signals (such as those in the VHF and UHF range) can travel further and more easily pass through obstacles.

                              Power: The strength of a radio signal can also affect how well it propagates. Generally, a stronger signal will be able to travel further than a weaker one.

                              Antenna type: Different types of antennas are more or less efficient at transmitting or receiving a signal depending on the frequency, waveform and other factors.

                              Obstacles: Various types of obstacles, such as buildings, trees, and hills, can block or reflect radio signals. This can lead to signal shadowing, multipath or diffraction.

                              Weather conditions: The weather can have a significant effect on radio signal propagation. For example, ionized or charged particles in the atmosphere can reflect signals, allowing them to travel further. On the other hand, humidity and atmospheric gases can absorb signals.

                              Some common propagation methods are:

                              Ground wave propagation: the wave travels along the surface of the Earth, and it is mostly used by low frequencies.

                              Line of sight propagation: This type of propagation is generally limited to the horizon, and it requires a clear view between the transmitter and receiver.

                              Sky wave propagation: Signals are reflected by the ionosphere to travel over long distances. This method is used by medium and high frequencies.

                              Tropospheric propagation: Signals that travel through the lower levels of the atmosphere, it can be affected by temperature inversions and atmospheric pressure.

                              It is important to keep in mind that signal propagation can vary greatly depending on the specific environment, and it can be affected by many other factors. There are many tools and models available to help predict and understand signal propagation for a given scenario, such as ITU-R P.526 or Okumura-Hata.

                              Motorola MXP600 Tetra Superyacht Radio

                              TETRA Superyacht Radio Communications

                              TETRA is increasingly popular for superyacht radio communications.

                              Tetra is a digital trunked radio system widely used by emergency services around the world, and is security focussed.

                              The word TETRA is short for Trans European Trunked Radio.

                              Benefits

                              TETRA provides superyacht crew and owners, with instant voice and data communications.

                              Communications are secure and reliable, which has two primary benefits.

                              Crew

                              Crew are able to instantly communicate around the superyacht, and even to distant tenders.

                              Instant secure communications can be used by Stews for coordinating guest requests.

                              Engineers can communicate between engine room and other areas fo the yacht.

                              Owners & Guests

                              Owners and guests are able to make requests.

                              This could be done either directly using the radio, or more likely via a service call button, linked to the radio system.

                              Operation

                              Tetra is a trunked type of radio system.

                              Trunked systems do not allocate users to a particular channel or frequency.

                              When a radio transmits, the system allocates a channel for communication to take place.

                              Therefore the sender of the transmission, and the receiver of the transmission, are allocated a channel for that conversation.

                              Advantage

                              The advantage of allocating users to a channel each time, is channel efficiency.

                              ATEX Intrinsically Safe radios

                              Superyacht ATEX

                              Superyacht ATEX equipment, is designed to prevent explosions.

                              Superyachts and other Marine vessels, are at potential risk of explosion.

                              Explosions are caused by electrical sparks being produced by equipment, being used in areas with potentially explosive atmospheres.

                              An example of a potentially explosive environment, is a ships battery room.

                              In a battery room, potentially explosive gases are released by the emergency batteries, which charging.

                              The batteries are there to power key marine system, such as navigation, steering and communications, in the event of main system failure.

                              Other potential explosion risk areas, include fuel tanks.

                              Whilst its true that most Superyachts currently use diesel power as the Prime Mover , there are potentially other fuels onboard.

                              We can help ensure that your superyacht is using the correct radio equipment, in the correct environment, for maximum safety.

                              +44 (0)1522 740818, and speak to Craig about superyacht ATEX survey audits, and product solutions.

                              Craig first worked in marine electronics aged 17, and has taught ATEX systems to trainee Marine Cadets & ETO’s, at South Shields Marine School.

                              Yacht Recommendation for Marine Two-Way Radio

                              The Motorola DP3441 is an excellent choice for marine environments, offering durability and reliability crucial for operations at sea.

                              Its compact design ensures convenience without compromising on performance. With a large capacity Lithium-Ion battery providing up to 10 hours of operating time, the crew can rely on continuous communication throughout their duties.

                              In emergencies, the addition of throat microphones with attached acoustic tubes enhances communication efficiency and ensures clarity even in noisy or chaotic situations. This feature is particularly valuable for deckhands who may need to communicate vital information quickly and effectively.

                              The installation of the radio system has significantly boosted onboard security and productivity. Officers and crew alike appreciate the robustness, reliability, and user-friendly nature of the compact radios, which streamline communication processes and facilitate seamless coordination.

                              Yesway Communication delivers ongoing support and post purchase assistance, therefore the yacht owner can rest assured that any future issues with its two-way radio equipment will be promptly addressed, ensuring peace of mind for all onboard.

                              What is the best handheld two way radio system for a superyacht in Europe?

                              Selecting the best handheld two-way radio system for a superyacht in Europe depends on several factors including range requirements, features needed, budget, and specific preferences of the crew. Here are a few top options that are commonly recommended:

                              1. Motorola MOTOTRBO Series: Motorola is a trusted brand in the two-way radio industry. Their MOTOTRBO series offers a range of handheld radios suitable for marine use. These radios often have long battery life, good range, and rugged design.
                              2. Icom IC-M73: Icom is known for producing high-quality marine communication equipment. The IC-M73 is a popular handheld VHF marine radio with features like waterproof construction, long battery life, and strong audio output.
                              3. Standard Horizon HX870: Another reputable brand in the marine communication sector, Standard Horizon offers the HX870 handheld VHF radio. This model is known for its integrated GPS, DSC functionality, and rugged design.
                              4. Simrad HH36: Simrad is a well-known name in the marine electronics industry. The HH36 is a handheld VHF radio with features like waterproof construction, long battery life, and a large display for easy readability.
                              5. Garmin VHF 110i: Garmin is renowned for its GPS technology, but they also produce high-quality marine communication equipment. The VHF 110i is a handheld VHF radio with features like clear audio, DSC functionality, and easy-to-use interface.

                              Before making a decision, it’s essential to evaluate the specific needs of your superyacht and ensure that the chosen radio system complies with relevant regulations and standards for maritime communication in Europe. Additionally, consider factors like compatibility with existing onboard communication systems and ease of integration. Consulting with marine communication experts or professional installers can also provide valuable insights and recommendations tailored to your specific requirements

                              kenwood two way radio

                              Why the correct choice of coaxial cable in a two way radio repeater system design, is important

                              Why the correct choice of coaxial cable in a repeater system design, is important.

                              Selecting the correct type of coaxial cable is crucial for ensuring optimal performance in two-way radio repeater installations.

                              The coaxial cable serves as the transmission medium for radio frequency (RF) signals between the radio equipment and the antennas.

                              The choice of coaxial cable impacts various aspects of repeater performance, including signal loss, impedance matching, durability, and cost-effectiveness.

                              Here’s why the correct type of coaxial cable is important:

                              Signal Loss: Coaxial cables exhibit signal attenuation, or loss, as the RF signal travels along the cable.

                              The magnitude of signal loss depends on factors such as cable length, frequency, and the characteristics of the cable itself.

                              High-quality coaxial cables with low loss characteristics help minimise signal attenuation, allowing the repeater system to maintain strong signal integrity over longer distances.

                              Impedance Matching: Coaxial cables have a characteristic impedance, typically 50 or 75 ohms, that must match the impedance of the radio equipment and antennas.

                              Mismatched impedance can lead to signal reflections and loss of signal power, resulting in degraded performance and potential damage to the equipment.

                              Using coaxial cable with the correct impedance ensures proper signal transfer and impedance matching throughout the repeater system.

                              Frequency Range: Different coaxial cables have varying frequency ranges over which they can effectively transmit RF signals.

                              It’s essential to choose a coaxial cable that supports the frequency range of the repeater system’s operation.

                              Using a cable with inadequate frequency handling capabilities can result in signal distortion, attenuation, and poor performance, particularly at higher frequencies.

                              Durability and Environmental Factors: Two-way radio repeater installations are often deployed in outdoor or harsh environments where coaxial cables are exposed to weather elements, temperature variations, and physical stress.

                              The selected coaxial cable should be rugged and weatherproof, capable of withstanding environmental factors without degradation in performance or reliability.

                              Additionally, cables with UV-resistant jackets and corrosion-resistant connectors are preferred for long-term outdoor deployments.

                              Cost-Effectiveness: While high-quality coaxial cables may come at a higher initial cost, they offer superior performance and reliability, leading to lower maintenance and replacement costs over time.

                              Investing in quality coaxial cable upfront can result in a more robust and efficient repeater system with reduced downtime and operational expenses in the long run.

                              In summary, choosing the correct type of coaxial cable is essential for achieving optimal performance in two-way radio repeater installations.

                              It directly influences signal loss, impedance matching, frequency handling, durability, and cost-effectiveness of the repeater system.

                              By selecting high-quality coaxial cable that meets the specific requirements of the installation, operators can ensure reliable and efficient communication for the radio network.

                              What is WIMAX

                              WiMAX, short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a wireless communication standard that provides high-speed broadband connectivity over long distances. It is based on the IEEE 802.16 family of standards and is designed to deliver wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) and wide-area network (WAN) connectivity.

                              Here are key features and aspects of the standard:

                              1. Broadband Wireless Access:

                              • WiMAX is designed to provide broadband wireless access, delivering high-speed internet connectivity to both fixed and mobile users.

                              2. Frequency Bands:

                              • It operates in various frequency bands, including the 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and 5.8 GHz bands. The specific frequency bands used can vary depending on regulatory considerations in different regions.

                              3. Point-to-Multipoint Communication:

                              • It supports point-to-multipoint communication, allowing a base station (access point) to communicate with multiple subscriber stations simultaneously.

                              4. Last Mile Connectivity:

                              • One of the applications of WiMAX is providing last-mile connectivity, especially in areas where traditional wired broadband infrastructure is not readily available.

                              5. Mobility Support:

                              • While WiMAX was initially designed as a fixed wireless access technology, the standard was later extended to support mobile applications, allowing users to connect to the network while on the move.

                              6. IEEE 802.16 Standards:

                              • The IEEE 802.16 family includes multiple standards. The original standard was IEEE 802.16-2004, followed by amendments such as IEEE 802.16e-2005 for mobile WiMAX and IEEE 802.16m for advanced mobile WiMAX.

                              7. WiMAX Forum:

                              • The WiMAX Forum is an industry association that promotes the adoption of WiMAX technology and ensures interoperability between different vendors’ equipment.

                              8. Coverage and Range:

                              • WiMAX can provide coverage over long distances, making it suitable for serving both urban and rural areas. The range can extend to several kilometers from a base station.

                              9. Competition and Evolution:

                              • While it was initially considered a competitor to other broadband technologies like DSL and cable, its adoption faced challenges. Long-Term Evolution (LTE), a competing 4G technology, gained broader acceptance, and many mobile operators shifted their focus to LTE and later 5G technologies.

                              Today, while it is still in use in some regions and specific applications, it is not as widely deployed as LTE and 5G for mobile broadband. The industry has moved toward the adoption of these newer technologies for enhanced performance and capabilities.

                              What is WIFI

                              What is WIFI

                              Wi-Fi, short for Wireless Fidelity, is a technology that enables wireless local area networking (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards. Wi-Fi allows devices such as computers, smartphones, tablets, and other wireless-enabled devices to connect to the internet and communicate with one another within a local network without the need for physical cables.

                              Here are some key aspects of Wi-Fi:

                              1. Wireless Standards:

                              • Wi-Fi operates based on IEEE 802.11 standards, with different letters and numbers denoting various iterations of the technology. For example, Wi-Fi 6 is based on the IEEE 802.11ax standard.

                              2. Frequency Bands:

                              • Wi-Fi devices can operate in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands. The 2.4 GHz band has a longer range but is more susceptible to interference, while the 5 GHz band offers higher data rates and is less congested.

                              3. Wireless Access Points (APs):

                              • Wi-Fi networks consist of one or more access points, which are devices that transmit and receive Wi-Fi signals. Access points are often integrated into routers.

                              4. Security:

                              • Wi-Fi networks use various security protocols, such as WPA3 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 3), to encrypt data and protect against unauthorized access.

                              5. SSID (Service Set Identifier):

                              • Wi-Fi networks are identified by their SSID, which is a name that users can see when searching for available networks. It is essential to secure Wi-Fi networks with a strong password to prevent unauthorized access.

                              6. Modes and Bands:

                              • Wi-Fi devices can operate in different modes, including Infrastructure mode (connecting to a network through an access point) and Ad-hoc mode (direct device-to-device connection). Dual-band and tri-band Wi-Fi routers support multiple frequency bands.

                              7. Evolution:

                              • Wi-Fi technology has evolved over the years, with each new generation offering improved speed, capacity, and performance. Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 6E are the latest standards, providing faster data rates and better performance in crowded environments.

                              8. Hotspots:

                              • Wi-Fi hotspots are locations where Wi-Fi access is available to the public, such as in coffee shops, airports, and libraries.

                              So to conclude, what is WIFI..

                              Wi-Fi is a ubiquitous technology, providing wireless connectivity in homes, businesses, public spaces, and educational institutions. It has become an integral part of modern life, enabling seamless internet access and connectivity for a wide range of devices.

                              ptt over cellular mast

                              Cellular networks

                              Cellular networks, including GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), are mobile communication technologies that enable wireless communication between mobile devices and provide voice and data services.

                              1. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications):

                              • Introduction: GSM is a 2G (second-generation) cellular network standard that was developed to replace analog cellular networks. It is a digital technology that uses time-division multiple access (TDMA) for channel access.
                              • Architecture: GSM networks are divided into cells, each served by a base station. Multiple cells together form a cellular network, and each cell has a corresponding base transceiver station (BTS).
                              • Frequency Bands: GSM operates in various frequency bands, including the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands in Europe and the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands in North America.
                              • Services: GSM provides voice services, Short Message Service (SMS), and data services (GPRS – General Packet Radio Service).

                              2. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System):

                              • Introduction: UMTS is a 3G (third-generation) cellular technology that evolved from GSM. It provides higher data rates and additional services compared to GSM.
                              • Architecture: UMTS employs a wider band of frequencies and uses a different air interface based on wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA). The network architecture includes Node-B (base station), Radio Network Controller (RNC), and a core network.
                              • Frequency Bands: UMTS operates in various frequency bands, including the 2100 MHz band.
                              • Services: UMTS supports higher data rates, enabling services like mobile internet, video calling, and multimedia messaging. It is also backward-compatible with GSM, allowing for seamless handovers between GSM and UMTS networks.

                              Key Features Common to Both GSM and UMTS:

                              1. Cellular Architecture: Both GSM and UMTS networks are divided into cells, allowing for efficient use of the available frequency spectrum.
                              2. Handover Capability: Mobile devices can seamlessly switch from one cell to another as they move, ensuring continuous connectivity.
                              3. Global Standards: GSM and UMTS are global standards, facilitating international roaming and interoperability.
                              4. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM): Both technologies use a SIM card that stores subscriber information, allowing users to easily switch devices while retaining their identity and services.
                              5. Security: Both GSM and UMTS incorporate security features to protect communication, including encryption and authentication.

                              UMTS, being a 3G technology, provides higher data rates and more advanced services compared to GSM, which is a 2G technology. However, with the evolution of technology, both GSM and UMTS have been succeeded by 4G LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and 5G for even higher data rates and enhanced capabilities.

                              CSMA/CA

                              CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. It is a network protocol used in wireless communication to avoid collisions in the transmission of data.

                              Here’s a breakdown of how CSMA/CA works:

                              1. Carrier Sense (CS): Before transmitting data, a device using CSMA/CA listens to the wireless channel to check for the presence of other signals. If the channel is clear, the device proceeds with transmission.
                              2. Multiple Access (MA): Multiple devices share the same communication channel. CSMA/CA allows multiple devices to access the channel, but they must follow certain rules to avoid collisions.
                              3. Collision Avoidance (CA): Unlike CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection), which is used in wired Ethernet networks, CSMA/CA focuses on collision avoidance rather than detection. In a wireless environment, it’s challenging to detect collisions reliably, so the emphasis is on avoiding collisions in the first place.

                              In CSMA/CA, a device wishing to transmit data follows a procedure:

                              • Request to Send (RTS): The device sends a short RTS frame to the intended recipient, indicating its intention to transmit.
                              • Clear to Send (CTS): If the intended recipient is ready to receive, it replies with a CTS frame.
                              • Data Transmission: The sender then transmits the actual data.
                              • Acknowledgment (ACK): The recipient sends an acknowledgment to confirm successful reception.

                              This process helps in avoiding collisions by ensuring that the channel is clear before transmission and by coordinating communication between devices.

                              CSMA/CA is commonly used in wireless LANs, such as Wi-Fi networks, where multiple devices share the same frequency spectrum. It helps manage the shared medium to avoid interference and collisions, promoting more efficient and reliable communication.

                              What is CDMA

                              Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a digital cellular technology that allows multiple users to share the same frequency band simultaneously. Unlike Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) or Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), which divide the frequency band into time slots or channels, CDMA uses a spread spectrum technique.

                              In CDMA, each user is assigned a unique code, known as a spreading code. These codes are used to modulate the user’s signal before transmission. All users in the system share the same frequency band, but their signals are distinguished by the unique codes.

                              Key characteristics include:

                              1. Spread Spectrum: CDMA uses spread spectrum technology, which spreads the signal across a wider frequency band. This provides advantages in terms of resistance to interference and improved security.
                              2. Soft Capacity: the systems exhibit a concept called “soft capacity,” meaning that the system can support a higher number of users than the number of available orthogonal codes. This is because users can be distinguished not only by their unique codes but also by the strength of their received signals.
                              3. Interference Rejection: it is known for its ability to handle interference well. Users can share the same frequency band, and the receiver can separate and recover the individual signals based on their unique spreading codes.

                              CDMA has been widely used in 2G (second generation) and 3G (third generation) cellular networks. CDMA2000 and WCDMA (Wideband CDMA) are examples of CDMA-based 3G technologies. However, in recent years, many mobile networks have transitioned to LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and 5G technologies, which use different modulation schemes.

                              Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

                              Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) is a digital modulation scheme that represents two bits of data per symbol. In QPSK, four different phase shifts of the carrier signal are used to encode the binary data. Each phase shift corresponds to a specific combination of two bits (00, 01, 10, and 11).

                              The term “quadrature” refers to the use of two carriers that are 90 degrees out of phase with each other. The QPSK modulation constellation diagram typically illustrates the four different phase positions.

                              Here’s a basic breakdown of how QPSK works:

                              1. Mapping Bits to Phase Shifts:
                                • 00 is represented by a 0-degree phase shift.
                                • 01 is represented by a 90-degree phase shift.
                                • 10 is represented by a 180-degree phase shift.
                                • 11 is represented by a 270-degree phase shift.
                              2. Transmission:
                                • Each symbol represents two bits of information.
                                • The carrier signal is modulated with the appropriate phase shift based on the two-bit data.

                              QPSK is used in various communication systems, including satellite communication, digital television, and some wireless communication standards. While Quadrature Phase Shift Keying provides a higher data rate compared to Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), it is more susceptible to noise and interference than higher-order modulations like 16-QAM or 64-QAM.

                              Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

                              Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is a modulation scheme used in digital communication to transmit data by varying both the amplitude and phase of a carrier signal. QAM allows for the transmission of multiple bits of information per symbol, making it a more bandwidth-efficient modulation scheme.

                              In QAM, the amplitude and phase of the carrier signal are simultaneously modulated to represent different combinations of amplitude and phase levels. The most common form is Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, where both amplitude and phase are modulated. The term “quadrature” refers to the use of two carriers that are 90 degrees out of phase with each other.

                              The number of amplitude and phase combinations determines the order of the QAM modulation. For example, in 16-QAM, there are 16 different possible combinations, allowing the transmission of 4 bits per symbol. Higher-order QAM, such as 64-QAM or 256-QAM, can transmit even more bits per symbol, but they are more susceptible to noise and interference.

                              QAM is widely used in digital communication systems, including cable modems, digital television broadcasting, and some wireless communication standards like Wi-Fi and 4G LTE. It strikes a balance between spectral efficiency and susceptibility to noise, making it suitable for various applications.