5G PTT Over Cellular

What is a LEO Satellite

A Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite, often simply referred to as a “LEO satellite,” is a type of satellite that orbits the Earth at relatively low altitudes compared to other types of satellites.

LEO satellites are positioned within a range of altitudes typically between 160 kilometers (100 miles) and 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) above the Earth’s surface.

They are an integral part of modern satellite technology and have a wide range of applications across communication, remote sensing, scientific research, and more.

Key Characteristics of LEO Satellites:

  1. Orbital Altitude: LEO satellites orbit the Earth at relatively low altitudes compared to other types of satellites.
  2. Their lower altitude results in shorter orbital periods and closer proximity to the Earth’s surface.
  3. Orbital Period: LEO satellites have shorter orbital periods, which means they complete orbits around the Earth more frequently than satellites in higher orbits. This results in more frequent coverage of specific regions on the Earth’s surface.
  4. High Speed: LEO satellites move at higher speeds compared to satellites in higher orbits, due to their proximity to the Earth. This speed contributes to their frequent orbital cycles and relatively short communication delays.
  5. Signal Latency: LEO satellites offer lower signal latency or delay in communication compared to satellites in higher orbits, making them suitable for applications that require real-time or low-latency communication, such as internet connectivity.

Applications of LEO Satellites:

  1. Communication: LEO satellites are commonly used for providing global broadband internet coverage. They form constellations of satellites working together to deliver internet services to remote and underserved regions.
  2. Earth Observation and Remote Sensing: LEO satellites are used for collecting high-resolution images and data about the Earth’s surface, atmosphere, and oceans. This data is valuable for environmental monitoring, disaster response, agriculture, and scientific research.
  3. Scientific Research: LEO satellites are used for scientific experiments, such as studying the Earth’s climate, magnetic fields, and other geophysical phenomena.
  4. Navigation and Positioning: Some LEO satellites contribute to global navigation and positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), enabling accurate location-based services.
  5. Space Research and Exploration: LEO satellites are used for space exploration missions, including studying space environments, testing new technologies, and conducting experiments in microgravity.
  6. Space Debris Monitoring: LEO satellites play a role in monitoring space debris and tracking potential collisions with other satellites or debris, contributing to the safety of space operations.
  7. Astronomical Observation: LEO satellites can be used for astronomical observations, particularly for studying phenomena that occur within Earth’s atmosphere.

Due to their proximity to Earth and shorter orbital periods, LEO satellites offer distinct advantages in terms of low-latency communication and more frequent coverage of specific areas.

However, they also require more satellites to provide global coverage, leading to the development of satellite constellations composed of hundreds or even thousands of interconnected LEO satellites.

These constellations are becoming increasingly significant for various industries, including communication, navigation, and Earth observation.

  1. Orbital Characteristics: LEO satellites travel in orbits that are much closer to Earth compared to satellites in higher orbits like geostationary or medium Earth orbits. This proximity allows for shorter signal travel times, reducing latency in communication.
  2. Launch and Deployment: LEO satellites are launched into space using rockets. Once they reach their designated altitude, they are deployed into their orbits. LEO constellations often consist of multiple satellites working together to provide global coverage.
  3. Orbit Altitude: LEO satellites are positioned at different altitudes within the low Earth orbit range, depending on their intended function. For example, communication satellites may be placed in higher LEOs, while Earth observation satellites might be in lower LEOs.
  4. Advantages of LEO Satellites:
    • Low Latency: Due to their close proximity to Earth, LEO satellites have much lower latency compared to satellites in higher orbits. This makes them ideal for applications like real-time communication and video conferencing.
    • High Data Rates: LEO satellites can provide high data transfer rates, making them suitable for broadband internet services and high-definition video streaming.
    • Frequent Revisits: LEO satellites complete orbits around the Earth relatively quickly, allowing them to revisit the same geographic area multiple times a day. This is beneficial for Earth observation and remote sensing tasks.
  5. Challenges of LEO Satellites:
    • Orbital Decay: LEO satellites experience more atmospheric drag than satellites in higher orbits, causing them to gradually lose altitude over time. This necessitates periodic adjustments or deorbiting.
    • Limited Coverage Area: LEO satellites have a smaller coverage area per satellite compared to geostationary satellites. To achieve global coverage, constellations of numerous LEO satellites are required.
    • Handovers: Since LEO satellites move quickly across the sky, user terminals or ground stations must hand over connections between satellites as they pass overhead.
  6. Communication with Ground Stations: LEO satellites communicate with ground stations or user terminals through radio signals.
  7. When a satellite is within the line-of-sight of a ground station, it can transmit and receive data. As the satellite moves out of range, the connection is handed over to another satellite or ground station in the network.
  8. Constellations: Many LEO satellite networks are organized into constellations, where multiple satellites work together to ensure continuous coverage. These constellations can be large, consisting of dozens or even hundreds of satellites.

In summary, LEO satellites work by orbiting the Earth at relatively low altitudes, providing advantages like low latency and high data rates for various applications. They overcome challenges associated with their low altitude through constellations and frequent orbits, enabling global coverage and diverse services.

world education

Why Direct To Handset Satellite is a Game Changer for World Education

Direct to handset #d2d satellite technology, has the potential to transform world education.

The transformation includes allowing all children to access education.

Currently, millions of children don’t have access to education.

This lack of access disproportionately affects girls and women.

Traditional Mobile (cell) Phones work by having nearby Cell Towers.

These Cell Towers connect the user’s phone to the network, by sending and receiving radio signals between the tower and the handset.

The problem with this traditional approach is that according to satellite operator Lynk Global, only 10% of the world is served by Cell Towers.

Covering the remaining 90% of the earth’s surface, using traditional infrastructure is uneconomic.

This matters, as it’s also uneconomic to install Internet cables underground.

This means that there is still a third of the world, that is not yet connected.

Not being connected to phone calls and the Internet, means that remote communities remain isolated.

It also means that these communities are at a significant disadvantage when it comes educational opportunities.

One of the challenges facing the world is a lack of trained teachers.

This results in students underperforming, in many countries, compared to other more developed ones.

Direct-to-handset connectivity delivers worldwide coverage, of both voice and Internet data.

For more articles on this world education enablement, visit the author’s website.

Overview of Satellite Systems and Services

We offer a course entitled: Understanding Satellite Communication Systems Course .

One of the modules is entitled Overview of satellite systems and services

    In this overview of satellite systems and services module we cover the following topics:

    Satcom Systems and Their Evolution:

    • Satcom systems have evolved significantly over time, driven by advancements in technology and the increasing demand for global connectivity. Here are some key stages in the evolution of Satcom systems:
    • First-Generation Satcom Systems: The first-generation systems used large, geostationary satellites to provide basic voice and data communication services. These systems primarily served government and military organizations and were limited in capacity and coverage.
    • Second-Generation Satcom Systems: Second-generation systems introduced higher-frequency bands, such as Ku-band and C-band, enabling increased data rates and improved capacity. These systems also facilitated the provision of direct-to-home television services.
    • Third-Generation Satcom Systems: Third-generation systems focused on digital signal processing and multiple spot-beam technology, allowing for frequency reuse and higher system capacity. They also introduced more efficient modulation and coding schemes, enabling improved spectral efficiency.
    • Fourth-Generation Satcom Systems: Fourth-generation systems brought about the use of high-frequency bands, such as Ka-band, to achieve even higher data rates and capacity. These systems enabled broadband internet access via satellite and supported advanced multimedia services.
    • Fifth-Generation Satcom Systems: Fifth-generation systems are currently being developed and deployed, aiming to leverage advanced technologies like High-Throughput Satellites (HTS), software-defined networking, and advanced beamforming techniques. These systems aim to deliver ultra-high-speed connectivity and support emerging applications like Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G. Network architectures used in Satcoms
    • The overview of satellite systems and services course includes Network Architecture.
    • Satcom networks employ various network architectures based on the specific requirements and characteristics of the communication system. Here are some commonly used network architectures in Satcoms:
    • Hub-and-Spoke Architecture:
    • The hub-and-spoke architecture is a widely adopted network architecture in Satcoms. It consists of a central hub or gateway station that serves as the central point for communication with multiple remote terminals, such as VSATs (Very Small Aperture Terminals). The hub communicates with the remote terminals by transmitting signals to and receiving signals from the satellites. The hub manages the network operations, routing, and resource allocation for the connected remote terminals.
    • Mesh Architecture:
    • In a mesh architecture, VSATs or remote terminals communicate directly with each other, forming a network without relying on a central hub. Each remote terminal acts as a node in the mesh, allowing direct communication with other nodes within the network. This architecture provides increased flexibility, scalability, and resilience as communication can be established even if one or more nodes are unavailable. Mesh networks are commonly used in scenarios where frequent point-to-point communication is required, such as in maritime or military applications.
    • Hybrid Architecture:
    • Hybrid architectures combine elements of both hub-and-spoke and mesh architectures. In this setup, a central hub interacts with remote terminals in a hub-and-spoke manner, while the remote terminals also have the capability to communicate directly with each other in a mesh-like fashion. This architecture allows for efficient communication between the central hub and remote terminals while enabling direct communication between the remote terminals when necessary.
    • Star Architecture:
    • In a star architecture, each remote terminal or VSAT communicates directly with a central hub or gateway station. The central hub serves as the focal point for all communication within the network. This architecture simplifies network management and allows for efficient routing and resource allocation. However, it may be less resilient compared to mesh or hybrid architectures, as the loss of the central hub can result in a loss of connectivity for the entire network.
    • Broadcast Architecture:
    • In certain scenarios, Satcom networks utilise a broadcast architecture where a satellite transmits information to multiple receiving terminals simultaneously. This architecture is commonly used for direct-to-home television services or radio broadcasting, where a single satellite can distribute content to a large number of users.
    • The choice of network architecture depends on factors such as the desired network topology, scalability, resiliency requirements, and the specific applications and services to be supported. Different architectures can be combined or adapted to suit the needs of a particular Satcom system.
    • VSATs overview and definition.
    • VSATs (Very Small Aperture Terminals) are small ground stations equipped with compact antennas, typically ranging from a few centimeters to a few meters in diameter. These terminals are designed to establish two-way satellite communication with a central hub or other VSATs. Here’s an overview of VSATs and their key characteristics:
    • Antenna:
    • VSATs feature an antenna, also known as a dish, which is responsible for transmitting and receiving signals to and from satellites. The antenna’s size depends on the specific application and the desired signal strength. Smaller VSAT antennas are commonly used for residential or small business applications, while larger antennas are deployed in enterprise or government networks.
    • Transceiver:
    • A VSAT includes a transceiver, which combines the functions of a transmitter and a receiver. The transceiver converts signals from intermediate frequencies to the frequency bands used for satellite communication. It handles the modulation and demodulation of signals for transmission and reception over the satellite link.
    • Modem:
    • A modem is an essential component of a VSAT system. It manages the encoding and decoding of data, ensuring that information is properly modulated for transmission and demodulated upon reception. The modem handles the digital conversion of data, error correction, and signal processing functions.
    • Networking Equipment:
    • VSATs are often equipped with networking capabilities, allowing them to connect to local area networks (LANs) and provide connectivity to multiple devices at a remote site. They can support various protocols, such as Ethernet, to facilitate the integration of the VSAT network into the broader network infrastructure.
    • Remote Terminal:
    • A VSAT is essentially a remote terminal in a satellite communication system. It operates at the user or subscriber end of the communication link. The VSAT communicates with the central hub or other VSATs via satellite, establishing a bidirectional communication channel for voice, data, or video transmission.
    • Scalability:
    • VSAT networks are highly scalable, allowing for the easy addition or removal of individual terminals as per network requirements. This scalability makes VSATs suitable for applications ranging from small-scale residential deployments to large enterprise networks covering multiple sites.
    • Remote Connectivity:
    • VSATs are widely used in scenarios where terrestrial communication infrastructure is limited, unreliable, or absent. They provide reliable connectivity to remote and underserved areas, enabling voice, data, and video communication, as well as access to the internet, regardless of geographic location.
    • VSATs have found applications in various sectors, including telecommunications, banking, oil and gas, maritime, aviation, defense, and emergency response. They have played a significant role in bridging the digital divide and extending connectivity to areas where traditional wired networks are not feasible or economically viable.
    • Signal Traffic and Services
    • Satcom networks support a wide range of signal traffic and services to meet the communication needs of various industries and users. Here are some common types of signal traffic and services provided by Satcom networks:
    • Voice Communication: Satcom networks enable voice communication services, allowing users to make phone calls over satellite connections. This is particularly valuable in remote or isolated areas where terrestrial communication infrastructure is limited or absent. Voice communication services over Satcom networks can range from individual voice calls to conference calls or even voice broadcasting for emergency alerts.
    • Data Communication: Satcom networks provide data communication services for transmitting digital information over satellite links. These services include internet connectivity, email, file transfer, and other data applications. Satcom enables users in remote locations to access the internet and exchange data with the global network, bridging the digital divide and facilitating connectivity in underserved areas.
    • Video Broadcasting: Satcom plays a crucial role in video broadcasting services, including direct-to-home television (DTH) services, cable TV distribution, and video contribution and distribution for media organizations. Satellites transmit video content to receiving stations, which can then distribute it to individual viewers or broadcast it over cable networks.
    • Multimedia Services: Satcom networks support multimedia services, allowing users to stream video content, access on-demand services, and engage in video conferencing or teleconferencing. These services are valuable for remote education, telemedicine, remote collaboration, and other interactive applications that require real-time multimedia communication.
    • IoT Connectivity: Satcom networks are increasingly being utilized for Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity. Satellites can serve as a backbone for connecting IoT devices and sensors deployed in remote or inaccessible areas, such as in agriculture, environmental monitoring, and asset tracking. Satcom enables data collection, monitoring, and control of IoT devices over a wide geographic area.
    • Emergency and Disaster Communication: During emergencies or natural disasters, terrestrial communication infrastructure may be damaged or overwhelmed. Satcom networks provide critical communication services in such situations, facilitating emergency response coordination, disseminating information, and enabling connectivity for disaster-affected areas.
    • Military and Defense Applications: Satcom networks are extensively used by military and defense organizations for secure and reliable communication. These networks support encrypted voice and data communication, video surveillance, intelligence gathering, and other mission-critical applications.
    • Mobile Communication: Satcom enables mobile communication services for users on the move, such as in the maritime and aviation industries. Satcom systems provide voice, data, and video connectivity to ships, airplanes, and other mobile platforms, ensuring continuous communication even in remote or oceanic regions.
    • The specific services offered may vary based on the Satcom network provider, coverage area, and the capabilities of the satellite system. Satcom networks continually evolve to meet the increasing demand for connectivity and support emerging technologies and applications.
    • Basic link operation
    • The basic link operation in Satcom involves establishing and maintaining communication between a transmitting station (uplink) and a receiving station (downlink) through a satellite. Here are the key steps involved in the basic link operation:
    • Uplink Transmission:
    • The transmitting station, equipped with a VSAT or a larger earth station, sends signals to the satellite. These signals can include voice, data, video, or any other form of information. The uplink transmission typically occurs in the uplink frequency band, which is different from the downlink frequency band used for reception.
    • Satellite Transponder:
    • The satellite receives the uplink signals from the transmitting station through its uplink antenna. The received signals are then processed by the satellite’s transponder. A transponder is a device on the satellite that receives the uplink signals, amplifies them, changes their frequency, and retransmits them back to Earth in the downlink frequency band.
    • Downlink Reception:
    • The receiving station, which can be another VSAT or a larger earth station, captures the downlink signals from the satellite using a downlink antenna. The downlink signals contain the transmitted information from the transmitting station. The receiving station’s equipment, such as a modem or receiver, demodulates and decodes the received signals to retrieve the original information.
    • Signal Processing and Delivery:
    • Once the downlink signals are received and processed, the receiving station performs various signal-processing tasks based on the type of service or application. This can include error correction, data formatting, decryption, and other necessary processing steps. The processed information is then delivered to the appropriate endpoint or user, such as a computer, phone, or television.
    • Feedback and Control:
    • The link operation involves continuous feedback and control mechanisms to ensure optimal communication performance. Parameters such as signal quality, power levels, modulation schemes, and antenna pointing accuracy are monitored and adjusted as needed to maintain a reliable and efficient link.
    • It’s important to note that the link operation in Satcom networks is bidirectional, allowing for two-way communication between the transmitting and receiving stations. This enables interactive services, such as voice calls, video conferencing, and real-time data exchange.
    • The basic link operation described above provides a general overview, and the actual implementation can vary depending on the specific Satcom system, network architecture, modulation schemes, and the equipment used in the transmitting and receiving stations.
    • Regulatory issues and constraints, from an International perspective.
    • From an international perspective, Satcom systems are subject to various regulatory issues and constraints that govern their operation and ensure efficient and responsible use of satellite communication resources. Here are some key regulatory aspects to consider:
    • Spectrum Allocation and Coordination:
    • Satcom systems rely on specific frequency bands allocated by international regulatory bodies such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). These frequency bands are assigned to different services and applications to avoid interference and ensure efficient spectrum utilization. Satcom operators must comply with spectrum regulations and coordinate their frequency usage with other satellite operators to prevent interference between different systems.
    • Licensing and Authorisation:
    • Satellite communication systems, including Satcom networks, require proper licensing and authorization from national regulatory authorities. These authorities oversee the deployment, operation, and usage of satellite systems within their respective jurisdictions. Operators must obtain the necessary licenses and comply with specific regulatory requirements, including technical standards, operational procedures, and reporting obligations.
    • Orbital Slot and Spectrum Rights:
    • The use of specific orbital slots and associated spectrum rights is regulated internationally. Operators must adhere to rules and procedures established by international organisations, such as the ITU, for assigning and protecting orbital slots and spectrum resources. These regulations ensure equitable access to orbital positions and prevent harmful interference between satellite systems.
    • Market Access and Trade:
    • International regulatory frameworks also address market access and trade-related aspects of Satcom systems. These frameworks aim to foster fair competition, promote open markets, and facilitate cross-border provision of satellite communication services. Regulatory bodies may impose certain restrictions or requirements on foreign satellite operators seeking market access in a particular country or region.
    • National Security and Sovereignty:
    • Satcom systems have strategic importance and implications for national security and sovereignty. Governments may impose regulatory constraints to ensure the security, resilience, and integrity of satellite communication networks. These constraints can include encryption requirements, restrictions on foreign ownership or control, and compliance with national security policies.
    • Interconnection and Interoperability:
    • Satcom networks need to interconnect and interoperate with terrestrial communication networks to provide seamless end-to-end connectivity. Regulatory frameworks may address issues related to network interconnection, quality of service, data privacy, and interoperability standards to enable smooth integration and interoperability between Satcom and terrestrial systems.
    • Spectrum Efficiency and Efficient Use of Resources:
    • Regulatory authorities promote spectrum efficiency and the efficient use of Satcom resources to accommodate growing demand and maximize available capacity. Operators are encouraged to employ advanced technologies, such as high-throughput satellites (HTS), efficient modulation schemes, and bandwidth management techniques, to optimise spectrum usage and increase system capacity.
    • It’s important to note that specific regulatory frameworks and requirements may vary among countries and regions. Operators and stakeholders in the Satcom industry must comply with the applicable national and international regulations to ensure lawful and responsible operation of their satellite communication systems.
    • For more information on the overview of satellite systems and services training, get in touch.

      hytera repeater

      Digital Radio Repeater Training


      Electromagnetic spectrum

      Propagation of Radio Waves above 30MHz.

      VHF versus UHF

      Digital Versus Analogue transmission.

      Advantages and disadvantages of digital systems, compared with analogue.

      Digital Repeater standards (dPMR, DMR, Tetra etc)

      Analogue standards

      Trunked Systems

      Pseudo Trunk

      Antenna systems

      Coaxial lines, and considerations

      Impedance mismatch implications

      Code Plugs and system programming

      Designing a reliable communications repeater system.

      Power Supplies

      Lightning Protection

      Regulatory licensing (Ofcom)

      lorawan for managers

      RF Fundamentals Training Course

      Enhance Your Team’s skills and knowledge with our RF Fundamentals Training

      In the rapidly evolving landscape of wireless technology, Radio Frequency (RF) engineering stands as a pivotal and frequently undervalued domain. In response, our comprehensive training course has been meticulously designed to empower your business with essential RF knowledge that directly translates to optimised wireless, cellular, and microwave systems.

      Cost: £1637 + VAT

        Key Outcomes:

        1. Equip yourself with a solid understanding of RF essentials, enabling you to make informed decisions that impact your wireless operations.
        2. Understand RF Propagation and Antenna Principles: Gain insights into the intricate world of RF propagation and antenna functioning. This knowledge will give your team a competitive edge in maximising signal reach and quality.
        3. Maximise Systems Efficiency through Propagation Losses and Link Budgets knowledge: Learn to calculate propagation losses and establish link budgets, enabling you to strategically allocate resources and ensure optimal performance.
        4. Proficiently Test RF Systems: Acquire the skills to effectively test and evaluate RF systems, fostering a culture of quality assurance within your organisation.

        Elevate your team’s proficiency in RF engineering and unlock new dimensions of success in the wireless arena. Enroll now and lead the charge toward unparalleled wireless excellence.

        Summary of learning outcomes by the end of the course:

        • Be able to explain the basics of RF Engineering
        • Describe RF propagation and antenna principles.
        • Calculate propagation losses and link budgets.
        • Have the knowledge to carry out basic testing of RF systems.

        Who will benefit from the course?

        Anyone working in the wireless, cellular, and microwave systems industry, who wishes to learn more about RF fundamentals.

        Prerequisites: None.

        Course duration: 2 days.

        Cost: £1637 + VAT (20%).

        What you will learn:

        Comprehensive RF Training Course Outline:

        Module 1: Understanding RF Fundamentals

        • Defining RF: Exploring the essence of Radio Frequency (RF) and its core characteristics including frequency, wavelength, power, phase, and impedance.
        • Tracing RF History: Uncovering the evolution of RF technology and its significance in modern wireless systems.
        • Navigating Frequency Bands: Investigating radio signal frequency bands and their practical applications.
        • Ensuring Safety and Compliance: Addressing safety and legal considerations pertaining to RF operations.

        Module 2: Exploring RF Systems

        • Microwave Insights: Delving into the realm of microwaves and their relevance in wireless networks.
        • Unveiling Cellular/Mobile RF: Understanding the intricacies of cellular and mobile RF systems and their integral role in connectivity.
        • Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs): Examining WLANs and their components, with a hands-on exercise in constructing a basic WLAN network.

        Module 3: Mastering RF System Components

        • Deciphering Transmitters: Understanding the components and functions of RF transmitters.
        • Antenna Dynamics: Analyzing different types of antennas including isotropic and dipole, and comprehending how antennas achieve gain.

        Module 4: Demystifying Modulation Techniques

        • Modulation Techniques Demystified: Exploring modulation schemes, bandwidth considerations, and techniques like AM, FM, FSK, PSK, and QAM.
        • Managing Interference and Performance: Delving into interference issues and performance optimization, with a practical session on interference management.

        Module 5: Navigating Multiple Access Schemes

        • Efficient Spectrum Utilization: Exploring spectrum sharing through Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA).

        Module 6: Surveying Wireless Systems

        • Cellular Insights: Examining cellular technologies such as GSM and UMTS, along with hands-on experience in cellular systems.
        • Beyond Cellular: Exploring diverse wireless systems like WiFi, WiMax, GPS, DBS, RFID, radar, and Bluetooth.

        Module 7: Grasping Spread Spectrum Technologies

        • Benefits and Mechanisms: Understanding the advantages and workings of spread spectrum technologies.
        • Direct Sequence and Frequency Hopping: Exploring Direct Sequence and Frequency Hopping techniques, and their hybrid implementations.

        Module 8: Mastering RF Propagation

        • Propagation Models and Link Budgets: Understanding propagation models and link budget calculations for effective signal transmission.
        • Smith Chart and RF Matching: Navigating the Smith chart for RF matching, assessing cell capacity, and weighing power vs. bandwidth tradeoffs.
        • Tackling Propagation Challenges: Addressing challenges like free space propagation, reflection, diffraction, and multipath cancellation, with insights into prediction and measurement tools.

        Module 9: Proficiency in RF Testing

        • Power Measurement Essentials: Clarifying the importance of power measurement over voltage/current, and mastering power unit conversions including dB and dBm.
        • Testing Equipment: Exploring essential RF testing equipment such as signal generators, power meters, network analyzers, and spectrum analyzers.
        • Practical RF Testing: Hands-on sessions covering RF test setups, including return loss and insertion loss measurements.

        Equip your team with the knowledge and practical skills to excel in RF engineering. This comprehensive training course covers everything from foundational concepts to advanced techniques, enabling your business to thrive in the dynamic world of wireless technology.

          Yesway Two Way Radio

          Challenge of Installing IOT Sensor Equipment in Explosion Proof Areas

          Challenge of Installing IOT Sensor Equipment in Explosion-Proof Areas, by Craig Miles

          IoT, or the Internet of Things is already changing the way that businesses function, and this is set to explode in the forthcoming years.

          IoT is all about improving business efficiency by collecting information (via sensors) about the physical world (Inputs such as temperature, pressure, location, etc), and then using this data to trigger an automated action, based on the data.

          Installing the sensors that provide the ‘inputs’ to your IoT system is usually fairly straightforward in most environments, however potentially explosive environments require special considerations.

          When installing any electrical or electronic device in a potentially explosive environment, the device must be rated as ‘EX’ , also known as ‘intrinsically safe’.

          Intrinsically safe electrical equipment is available as components such as electric fans, cable glands, and hand-held two-way radios.

          This is a business opportunity for IoT device manufacturers to create ‘EX’ rated sensors.

          The main thing to consider at all times when designing your install is will my equipment cause a spark, potentially causing an explosion.

          First, consider your sensor itself. An example is a sensor located in a ship’s battery room to monitor and report on voltage and a specific gravity of the lead-acid batteries, used for emergency backup.

          The sensor you use to collect the information MUST be EX rated / intrinsically safe, to be compliant.

          The next consideration is how you are going to get the data from the sensor ‘out’ of the potentially explosive area and to the location where the data is processed.

          Wireless technologies such as Zigbee, WIFI, and LORA could be used, but by definition produce RF radiation which could potentially cause an explosion. Therefore it is crucial that only equipment that is EX rated is used.

          In the case of environments hostile to RF (Radio Frequency) Radio Waves, such as ships, oil rigs, and other buildings with high metal content, an alternative would be a fixed wired solution.

          When using wired methods to transmit sensor data, the cable gland must be designed so that the explosive area remains gas-tight, to prevent explosive gases from interacting with electrical components outside the intrinsically safe area.

          Glands for this purpose exist and can be found online.

          To conclude, the key to installing the Internet of Things (IOT) in a potentially explosive environment is to ensure that every piece of IoT equipment that is installed is EX rated to prevent explosion risks.

          You also need to think about and ensure that any wiring that leaves the intrinsically safe/explosive area goes through properly rated EX glands, to ensure safety.

          For more information on the Challenge of Installing IOT Sensor Equipment in Explosion-Proof Areas, why not contact us.

          The author is Craig Miles (me) and I can be contacted via www.craigmiles.co.uk

          All content is copyright, and copying and all rights are reserved (c) Craig Miles 2015

          Internet of Things | Two Way Radio Wireless Communications – Yesway Communications


          M2M (Machine-To-Machine Communications

          M2M (Machine-To-Machine) Communications

          M2M is short for ‘Machine to Machine’ communications. It works in a similar way to mobile phone communications (Human to Human).

          M2M transmits data in real-time between machines automatically, and without human intervention.

          Data can be transmitted both wirelessly and by fixed wired methods.

          Applications of these technologies include remote monitoring of water levels; smart road signs and remote machinery monitoring.

          Wireless technologies are generally the preferred method of transmitting machine data, due to the flexibility of equipment location. Wireless technologies include low powered terrestrial radio transmitters, satellites, and the mobile phone networks.

          (c) Craig Miles 2014