Link Budget

Radio link budget, is a calculation of the maximum allowable path loss between a transmitter and receiver in a wireless communication system.

It takes into account the transmit power, antenna gain, cable losses, free space path loss, and receiver sensitivity to determine the maximum distance that can be covered by a wireless link.

Here are the steps to calculate the radio link budget:

  1. Determine the transmit power: This is the power level at which the transmitter sends signals. It depends on the modulation scheme, data rate, and the range of the wireless link.
  2. Calculate the antenna gain: Antenna gain is the measure of how much the antenna can concentrate or focus the signal in a particular direction. It depends on the type and design of the antenna.
  3. Determine the cable losses: The cable losses are the losses that occur in the transmission line between the transmitter and antenna due to impedance mismatch, attenuation, and other factors.
  4. Calculate the free space path loss: This is the loss that occurs due to the spreading of the signal as it travels through the air. It depends on the frequency of the signal, the distance between the transmitter and receiver, and the environment.
  5. Determine the receiver sensitivity: This is the minimum power level that the receiver can detect and still recover the signal. It depends on the modulation scheme and data rate.
  6. Calculate: The link budget is the sum of all the gains and losses in the system. It is calculated as follows:

Link budget = transmit power + antenna gain – cable losses – free space path loss – receiver sensitivity

Once the link budget is calculated, you can determine the maximum distance that can be covered by the wireless link.

If the calculated path loss is less than the link budget, the wireless link should work.

If the calculated path loss is greater than the link budget, then the wireless link will not work.

Training for radio link budget calculation involves understanding the concepts of wireless communication, modulation schemes, antenna designs, cable losses, free space path loss, and receiver sensitivity.

It also involves hands-on experience with radio frequency (RF) equipment, such as spectrum analysers, network analysers, and RF power meters, to measure and analyse the RF signals in a wireless communication system.